Prince Sanguszko’s Stud Farm (1876)

By Roman Sanguszko Sr.

Published in The Encyclopedia of Farming and news relating to it, Volume 3, Warsaw, 1876, pages 662-667.

Edited by Lyman Doyle. Translated from Polish by David Rygielski.

Editor’s Note

The author, Prince Roman Sanguszko Sr. (1800-1881) was the son of Prince Eustachy Sanguszko (1768-1844) and grandson of Prince Hieronim Sanguszko (1743-1812). He writes about the history of his family and their horses in this document that was published in 1876 in Polish. Prince Roman Sanguszko Sr. was 76 years old at the time this was published.

From Prince Roman Sr.’s text we understand the following about Skowronek’s ancestors:

  1. From 1800 to 1872 a total of 62 oriental and Arabian horses were imported, consisting of 55 stallions and 7 mares. From this information we can see that the improvement of the Sanguszko horses was primarily done through importing stallions instead of mares. The first mare imported by the Sanguszko’s was in 1818. Consequently, horses bred prior to this date must have originated from a motley blend of non-Arabian mares as described below.
  2. The enrichment of the horses bred by the Sanguszko family with so called Eastern, Arab or Oriental blood started under the management of Prince Roman Sr’s grandfather, Prince Hieronim when the nobleman Burski was sent on a buying expedition to Arabia from 1800-1803.
  3. Prince Roman describes and gives details from a Chrestówka stud report from 1799 signed by Rybiński to illustrate the type of mixed blood horses present in their family herd prior to Burski’s buying expedition. After summarizing the report he concludes: “such details are very precious to history, as they give evidence on which we can base our opinions and theories about the happenings of the herd about which we are writing. It shows that the herds of great landowners of the times were often mixed and led without any thought.” He continues, “there was no clear direction in the systematic leading of the herd; everything was achieved by chance, as seen from the collection of stallions and mares cited above. There was no race[1] in the herd collected from all kinds of sub-par sources – such as Starzyński, Pruszyński, and the like. Therefore we come to the conclusion, that all small and larger herds in Ukraine and the Wołyń region had no value in terms of race; but only in terms of local horses, and they appeared from the necessity of keeping horses to defend the lands, and through the appropriateness of surrounding areas for pastures, they had risen to quite a high level.”
  4. Szwieykowska, a potential ancestress of Skowronek, is specifically mentioned in the author’s review of the Rybiński 1799 stud report. Prince Roman explains she is named after the person and place from where she came. Szwieykowska is a Polish surname that survives to the present day. She was not an Arab horse.
  5. Szumka I, ancestor of Skowronek, was a black horse owned by Prince Eustachy (1768-1844). Szumka I’s older brother was given to Prince Józef Poniatowski in 1810, who was later painted on it. The name of Szumka I’s older brother is not mentioned.
  6. The origin of Szumka II, a Skowronek ancestor, is described by the Prince this way: “The black Szumka II was the one that stood out the most from the Hajlan progeny, he came from the mare Polka. Polka was not a pure Arabian mare; her sire was of a cherry-bay coat and bought in Vienna, Austria around the year 1790. It is even said that Prince Eustachy won the right to buy it by his brave and artful riding of it, as it was a very insidious horse.” Polka’s sire was not Arabian. Prince Eustachy purchased Polka’s unnamed sire in Vienna around 1790 when Eustachy was in his early 20s.
  7. Prince Roman Sanguszko Sr does not use the words “pureblood,” “purebred” or even the word “pure” to describe the horses his family bred. He used the old Polish word “Stanowne” to describe the breed of mares at Chrestówka referring to something that is constant, unchanged, steady or staid. At Satanów south of Antonin, he refers to the mares bred by the family as “Arabian mares of our own breeding.”

The translation follows:

The stud farm, today known as the Princes Sanguszkos’ Stud, comes from Prince Hieronim, the last Governor of Wołyń, the son of Prince Paweł Sanguszko, a Crown Marshal. As the traces of enrichment[2] only start showing from the time of Prince Hieronim’s management, only that timeline will be of interest to us historically, even more so that all the side branches, collateral so to speak, of the Princes Sanguszkos’ Stud has been lost with nothing remaining.

The herd of Prince Hieronim Sanguszko, the Wołyń Governor[3], was located at the river Dnieper in the Czerkasy region, which remained within the possession of the Sanguszko family for several centuries without interruption; as well as in Wołyń, Chrestówka, in Tarnawka, Polachów, and the villages in the Białogrodecki key – the property of Princes Sanguszkos, the kingdom and the Zasławski district. As a result of political happenings and the natural course of history, today it is split into two parts, one of which has remained in the same place, in Chrestówka, although much reduced in its size; the second part on the other hand, has been moved to Satanów,[4] at the Zbruch river, in the Podolia region. The stables representing these two split parts, for the purpose of keeping the appearance of past togetherness, are always together in Sławuta, apart from the teaching stable, which is upkept solely by the Satanów herd, together with the Earl Alfred Potocki, in Antonin, in the Wołyń region, a manor that was also historically part of the old Zasławski princedom.

The old Chrestówka herd was the progeny and kin of the old herds of the family, and did not have a founding concept behind it, as it came from a time that the Princes Sanguszko, coming from Lithuania, settled in Wołyń and Ukraine. The turbulent warring period which Wołyń and Ukraine underwent for several centuries were a major contributor to the development of stud farms and herds, which could be easily be moved to distant lands if the enemy came. Therefore, the war with peoples who kept racially pure[5] horses, with Turks, Tatars, and Cherkesses commanded to always keep eastern and Arabian stallions[6] in the numerous herd of Wołyń and Podolia, grazing on the best horse pastures in Europe.

It can be truthfully said that the herd had no concept and profile behind it, and only the historical turmoil of the country and the Sanguszko family dictated its increase and the races[7] kept within the herd. It is the only herd that has this historical provenance of being founded a long time ago and being kept by the same family – while other herds of Podolia and Ukraine were created in times which the memory of living people can still reach, or not long before.

So the Chrestówka stud is the only one which survived several centuries, equally and parallel to lands and manors belonging to the Sanguszko Princes, and their importance had been increasing in this region. After the death of Prince Paweł, the herd was split by the sons. The herd of the older son of the Prince could not be split, and no traces of it remain. It went the way of the whole inheritance, and was lost to the uncles of the deceased Prince, the Lubomirski Princes. The Sanguszko herd itself was split between three brothers. When Prince Józef, the older of them, and his son, Roman, died, the herd was split into two: the Chrestówka half, and Kłębowieckie/Zasławskie half. The latter half, after half a century of decline, also disappeared without trace around 1845.

The Chrestówka herd, after the death of Hieronim in 1812, gathered within itself other local herds from manors in the Czerkasy district, and the Illintsi Raion of Ukraine. In that year, the whole estate underwent sequestration, and the herd only survived as it was hidden at the time in the incredibly large Smołderowski forest. Long after, Kumberlej’s herd in Little Russia was famed that it came from the mares taken from Chrestówka in 1812, while he was the governor of Wołyń.

When the wars against Muslims and the Crimean Tatars ended, there was a feeling of demand for racially pure eastern stallions, which the wars earlier supplied; so a few of the big land owners started sending for stallions to Istanbul. However, bringing a horse from Arabia was only done by the Wołyń Governor[8], while nobody else in Europe did this at the time. He sent a real expedition out for this purpose, which was led by Burski, the Prince’s household member.

Information exists that the first Arabian horse of the Chrestówka herd was a skarogniady (dark bay) stallion, brought over from Istanbul for King Stanisław Augustus; however in the eyes of the King, who was used to the trends and fashion of Western Europe, it was of insufficient height, and it was given as a gift to Politowski, a King’s courtier. Prince Hieronim bought him, and kept him in the herd under that surname.

Burski, after several years of travel, returned and brought 5 stallions with him. The first transport of the Arabian stallions, which was so difficult in those times, already left a significant mark on the herd. When Prince Eustachy, the son of the Governor Prince, in 1813, under amnesty returned to his manors, he bought 5 stallions remaining from the Turkish wars from Gudowicz, the main commanding general in Jassy; but these did not serve long, as their use in the Chrestówka herd proved to be inappropriate. After real Arabs[9] were brought by Burski; he undertook to imitate his father, and undertake a second expedition to Arabia itself with the aim of sourcing stallions.

Before we get back to this expedition, it is worth noting that during this time, Prince Eustachy had a horse who with his bravery made his name in history. This black, and courageous saddle horse of the Prince bore the name of Szumka I[10]. The older brother of this horse was equally beautiful, but smaller and not as courageous, was given as a present to Prince Józef Poniatowski in 1810, who was almost always riding it and was painted on it.

Prince Eustachy took a long time to prepare his dream excursion to Arabia, and in 1816, he sent the expedition under the leadership of Moszyński, the equerry. In November 1818, Moszyński returned, bringing with him 10 original horses[11], from which the white Hajlan and grizzled-greyish Dzielfa were first-rate stallions.

The black Szumka II was the one that stood out the most from the Hajlan progeny, he came from the mare Polka[12].

Polka was not a pure Arabian[13] mare; her sire was of a cherry-bay coat and bought in Vienna, Austria around the year 1790. It is even said that Prince Eustachy won the right to buy it by his brave and artful riding of it, as it was a very insidious horse.

Between the years 1821 and 1826, transports of horses from Arabia arrived periodically, and Prince Eustachy supported a Syrian Arab, named Arutin in Aleppo for several years. Arutin’s responsibility being to periodically bring Arab horses to Sławuta or to Odessa.

From 1842, after a break of several years, new Arab stallions started arriving: Dżeran kasztanowaty (chestnut), Batran Aga biały (white), a first class breeding stallion (fig. 10), and many more. The third expedition to Arabia was made by the person writing this note.[14] The fourth was in the years 1857 – 1858, under the leadership of two stable officials, Świerczyński and Czerniawski, and brought excellent horses. Summarizing my story, the quantities of Arabian original horses are:

Fig. 10: Batran Aga, original Arab stallion, of the Seglavi-Obejan race, from the Sławuta stud of Prince Sanguszko (painted by Juliusz Kossak).

In the years:

  • 1800 – 1803, original stallions brought from Arabia – 5
  • 1813 – 1814, oriental[15] stallions – 5
  • 1818… 9 Arabian stallions, 1 mare – 10
  • 1821 – 1826, 10 Arabian stallions, 4 mares – 14
  • 1842 – 1845, stallions brought from Arabia – 3
  • 1853 – 1855, stallions brought from Arabia – 4
  • 1858, 5 stallions from Arabia, 1859 one brought through England – 6
  • 1861, Derwisch, in 1862, Yemen – 2
  • 1864, Feruk-Han, 1865 young Feruk-Han – 2
  • 1865, Bagdadi, 1866 Aghil Aga, Jamri – 3
  • 1867, Hammad, 1868 Hadudi – 2
  • 1869 – 1872 Hemdani, Trafani, 2 Koheljans – 4
  • 1870 – 1871 two mares, white and a black Dzielfa – 2

Therefore, until 1st of June 1872, in total, 62 original Arab horses were brought over.

Notes I made from older historical mentions:

In the year 1790, in the Jankowieckie herd of the Governor Prince of Wołyń (Hieronim Sanguszko), the following breeding stallions here found: Turecki rosły (Turkish, well built), Siwo-jabłkowity (grey with apple prints), Siwy neapolitański (grey Neapolitan), Ogier dereszowaty (roan stallion), Ogier Andrusiewicz[16] kasztanowaty (chestnut stallion from Mr. Andrusiewicz), Ogier gniady bez odmiany (bay stallion with no variation).

The year before (1789), there were: Ogier dereszowaty (roan stallion), Ogier Andrusiewicz kasztanowaty (chestnut stallion from Mr. Andrusiewicz), Ogier siwo srokaty (pinto grey stallion).

In the year 1799, the following stallions were in Chrestówka: Brudnokasztanowaty angielski od ks. E. Sanguszki (English dirty-chestnut from Prince Eustachy Sanguszko), Kasztanowaty Starzyńskiego (chestnut from Mr. Starzyński), Siwy w jabłkach od Steckiego (grey haired with apple prints from Stecki), Grecki gniady (Greek bay one), Siwy w jabłka od Walewskiego (grey haired with apple prints from Mr. Walewski).

In the year, 1799, the stud report from 19th of August shows the following stallions:

In Czerkasy: Biały egipski (white Egyptian), Gniady od Księcia Strażnika (bay one from Prince Guard[17]), Siwy od księcia Stolnika (grey haired from Prince Stolnik[18]), Siwo-różowy od Pruszyńskiego (greyish pink one from Mr. Pruszyński[19]), Siwy swego chowu (our own grey haired one).

In Sławuta: Kasztanowaty angielski od ks. E. Sanguszki (English dirty-chestnut from Prince Eustachy Sanguszko), Kasztanowaty Starzyńskiego (chestnut from Mr. Starzyński[20]), Kasztanowaty Warszawczy (chestnut one from Warsaw), Kasztanowaty Elzner (chestnut one from the Elzners), Szpakowaty swego chowu (our own grizzled greyish one), Gniady pers (bay Persian).

Mares in the Chrestówka herd were named after the people and places from which they came from: Czerniatyńska, Mianoska, Rybińska[21], Czerkaska[22], Sobolowata, Szwieykowska[23], Warszawska[24], and so on. The mares in the Czerkasy herd were named in a simpler way, from the coats: Płowo-kasztanowata (fawn-chestnut), Skaro-gniada wierzchowa (dark bay, saddled), Kasztanowata młoda (young chestnut), Wolicka stara (Old Wolicka), Gniada stara (old bay), Gniada niemka (German bay), Gulka kasztanowata, o jednym cycku (chestnut Gulka, with one tit), and so on.

The total number of horses according to the cited report was: in Sławuta, saddle horses: 10; hussar and kossack: 3; carriage horses: 16; factory (that is, travel horses): 9.

In Chrestówka, there were 4 stallions, 57 mares, 51 foals, 33 mares who gave birth in 1799, 33 foals.

In Czerkasy, there were 11 mares who gave birth, 11 foals, 14 settled mares, 15 young, 17 foals.

In Tarnówka, 7 mares who gave birth in 1799, 7 foals, 30 settled mares, 20 young, 8 foals, in Polachów, there were 52 mares of different ages.

The total count in 1799 was 423 horses. The reports about the herd and the stables were signed by Rybiński, a general’s son.

Such details are very precious to history, as they give evidence on which we can base our opinions and theories about the happenings of the herd about which we are writing. It shows that the herds of great landowners of the times were often mixed and led without any thought. The only saving grace was that from the olden times, as a consequence of the Turkish and Tatar attacks, the hero families of our countries defending it, such as Princes Koreccy, Wiśniowieccy, Ostrogscy, Sienawscy, they had the opportunity to acquire original eastern and Arab[25] horses through the wars, and from them, the better blood and the higher oriental race[26] spread throughout the country. The past generation also have known this: the granddaughters of Sieniawski, while splitting the estate, took a part of the Sieniawski herd from Grzymałów and Satanów, and it was maintained throughout the first 18 years of the 19th century.

There was no clear direction in the systematic leading of the herd; everything was achieved by chance, as seen from the collection of stallions and mares cited above. There was no race[27] in the herd collected from all kinds of sub-par sources – such as Starzyński, Pruszyński, and the like. Therefore we come to the conclusion, that all small and larger herds in Ukraine and the Wołyń region had no value in terms of race; but only in terms of local horses, and they appeared from the necessity of keeping horses to defend the lands, and through the appropriateness of surrounding areas for pastures, they had risen to quite a high level.

When the political relations of our country with Turkey have gotten more stable with the end of the 18th century, journeys through Jassa[28] and Moldavia have become more manageable. With the beginning of the 19th century, the great land owners, as owners of great pastures and huge herds, have taken up the idea of sending for stallions from Istanbul. So did the Prince Czartoryski, the great general; so did Szczęsny Potocki, who sent the famous Obodyński on an excursion. So indeed did Prince Sanguszko, the Wołyń Governor sending Kajetan Burski, who we mentioned before. There were doubts whether Burski’s intentions were honest, whether he wasted time on entertaining himself, as was the later accusation; the survey of the details of the expedition will surely provide an answer, so let’s examine those details and quote them here. Burski writes from Istanbul on the 3rd of July 1803 that he is unhappy, having made expenses, and after three months, he has found no horses and is unable to come back. He writes further: “So I took it upon myself to venture into Arabia, to Aleppo, to find the right horses. The journey is far, but certainly it will not be in vain, as everybody here agrees that you can get the horses there.” A journey of this kind in that time was difficult and dangerous, and required some courage. If this letter is evidence that Burski first proposed this idea and too it upon himself, then we ought to be thankful to Governor Prince that he allowed him to carry out the mission.

Burski writes on: “I desire to do as a servant honestly committed to my lord, to risk my life but to fulfil the wishes of my master; which the others will not do!” He speaks on this further: “The equerries of Prince Adam (Czartoryski) and Obodyński would rather lose the regard of their master than to subject themselves to danger.” This letter and this instance are important for the Prince Sanguszko’s herd, as they show the beginning of the three generations of trying to source horses from Arabia and the basis of the value of the herd and the uniqueness tied to the Sanguszko name.

The son of the Governor, Prince Eustachy Sanguszko, was loyal to the inroads made by his father, and consistently expanded the relations with Arabia. He sent his equerry, Tomasz Moszyński (died 1858 in Sławuta), to the East. In the instructions that Tomasz was gives, the interesting details were the following: “In human life, in rooms and in bed, things occur. In a journey this far away from home, the imagination manifests itself strongly. Regardless, I can testify that nobody reached their end without destiny.” In the same instruction, he writes: “Four thousand ducats and five hundred roubles I entrust for the horses and for expenses. Moszyński will spend the four thousand ducats as he wishes. Three studs and a bastard of bastards[29] for a person of my size and age, but a very agile one, would make me happy.” This was a time of cheap horses, also in Arabia, from where horses were never brought to Europe, as this was still the time of the classic French riding school of Laguerriniere, and the German Gottingen. Only in England they appeared, from which the English race[30] came from. By looking at the bills from this expedition we have to admit that Moszyński really spent a small sum of money and was an extremely loyal and frugal servant. The instruction goes on: “Moszyński should make an arrangement in the case of, forbid God, his illness or death. Moszyński should also give a lot of thought, after buying horses in Damascus and its area, whether to go from Aleppo by land, or to get on a boat in Aleppo.”

Moszyński chose to go by land, and did well, although it was a journey of difficulty and danger. 28 years later the one writing these words, having bought horses in the same town, also chose to go by land.

The instructions conclude with such words: “If I thought that in this journey there is too much danger, I would send neither you, dear Moszyński, neither those that will go with you, and would not risk you for any horses. Sending a father and husband which you are, puts a duty onto me to ensure a decent raising for your family in the case of your accident.” Beautiful feelings which we should appreciate show us the duties and moral responsibilities that the great gentlemen felt.

Moszyński fulfilled the tasks that he was entrusted with honesty and care. On the 22nd of December 1818, after 2 years after departing, he was settling his bills. It is exceedingly interesting to know what the prices were 54 years ago. Moszyński writes: “I took from the Sławuta coffers 4700 ducats for the whole journey and purchase of horses, which when changed, a ducat being 14 leva, makes 65,800 leva.” He spent 31,550 leva on the horses. He had with him the help of equerry Franciszek Świerczyński and three stable Cossacks: Harasym, who previously was in Arabia with Burski, Szerewera, and Michałek. The latter died in Sławuta in 1872. The expenses for the whole journey both ways were 33,534 leva.

Bejan, also known as the big one, was bought in Aleppo for 3,150 leva. Dziedran was bought in the Hama Desert for 2,200 leva; the first was a bay horse, the latter a chestnut shade, and in a few years’ time was given to the herd of the Prussian Kingdom in Neustadt. The grey Rabdan was bought in the Hama desert for 3,700 leva. The white Haylan, the first horse of this batch, and the real founder of the Prince Sanguszko’s herd, was purchased in Damascus for 3,500 leva. The bay Seglawi, was purchased in the Swiry[31] desert for 2,000 leva. Dzielfa, the grizzled one, was purchased in the Babak desert for 1,300 leva. Kbeszan, a grizzled grey colt, was bought on the Babak desert for 700 leva. The chestnut mare, Seglawia, cost 2,000 leva in Hanszechun[32]. The chestnut Semrani Seglawi was purchased in Istanbul for 2,800 leva. The grey Neżdy was purchased in Istanbul for 10,200 leva.

The Prince Eustachy Sanguszko was so enchanted and happy by the possession of these horses, that he not only mentions them in his correspondence, but also describes the happenings of Moszyński’s expedition, and the events that surrounded the purchase of them. When reminiscing to his favourite brother-in-law, Mokronowski, he writes about Neżdy: “It is of unusual beauty.” This was the horse meant for him, as he so energetically described it in the original instructions. In a second letter, he describes this horse: “As white as silver; eyes, tail, and mane black; the largest of horses. On the third day after his arrival I reined him in, when he rose, he could reach the ceiling of the stable.” In a different letter, he writes, 18 months after Moszyński’s return (14th July 1819): “I buried Neżdy, he died of colic within a few hours.”

To Wacław Rzewuski, Prince Eustachy writes in January 1819: “I will tell the truth Sir, that in our country, neither an eyes saw, neither an ear heard about Arab horses of the kind that I have.” He repeats several times in this letter that they come from the desert.

That they came from the desert is an indisputable thing, and that was the factor that defined the superiority of these horses to the ones of the time, when nobody in Europe yet thought of sourcing Arab horses. Moszyński fulfilled his duties very well, he was aided with advice from an Englishman, Rawson, the first expert on Arab horses, who settled in Aleppo and married an Arab lady, whom the author of this note met in Aleppo 28 years later and was a guest in his home.

Surely even now you can find the highest degrees of perfection of the Arab horse in the desert. The desert and the Arab character are exceedingly old and constant; they do not change. However, in our time, moving with the speed of steam and electricity, nobody has the free time to take two or three years of their life to find a horse of the desert, like Burski, and Moszyński after him, did.

The above details show that the raising of Arab horses with love, is a domain of the family and the name of Prince Sanguszkos, confirmed by the efforts and feelings of four generations.

As to the current statistical state of the herd of the Sanguszkos, the numbers are as follows:

a) In Chrestówka, there are:

Stanowne[33] mares – 45

Half-blooded[34] mares – 4

Young and general horses – 141

Total = 190 horses

b) In Satanów, there are:

English full blood[35] mares – 7

Half-blood English mares – 3

Original Arab[36] mares – 2

Anglo-Arab[37] mares – 6

Arabian mares of our own breeding – 53

Young mares – 17

Young and general horses – 168

Total = 256[38]

  1. “Nie było rassy w zbieraninie” means there was no race in the collection.

  2. “Uszlachetniania” means enrichment; the process of making something more noble, precious, or refined.

  3. “Voivode” is a local governor or ruler in central or eastern Europe.

  4. Sataniv, Ukraine.

  5. “Rassowe” is translated as racially pure throughout this document.

  6. “Ogiery arabskie i wschodnie” means Eastern and Arab stallions.

  7. “Rassa” is translated as race throughout this document.

  8. Hieronim Sanguszko.

  9. “Prawdziwe araby” means real Arabs.

  10. “Szumka” is an old folklore dance in the Ukraine region which is danced to happy, jumpy songs.

  11. “Oryginalne” is translated as original throughout this document.

  12. “Polka” may refer to the name of a type of dance. However, in 1790, this type of music and dance has just started appearing.

  13. “Czysto arabska” means pure Arabian.

  14. Roman Sanguszko Sr., author.

  15. “Oryental” means oriental.

  16. “Andrusiewicz” is a surname.

  17. A nick name, identified as Janusz Sanguszko later on in the document.

  18. Prince Stolnik is Prince Józef Czartoryski.

  19. The chamberlain Antonin Pruszyński, the brother of the Princess Voivode of Wołyń, who lived in Siemaki on Wołyń, a manor belonging to Sławuta.

  20. Starzynski lived and died in Waśkowczyki near Antoniny.

  21. “Rybińska” is named after his equerry, Mr. Rybiński.

  22. “Czerkaska” is named after the place Czerkasy which is mentioned elsewhere in the document.

  23. “Szwieykowska” is named after a Mr. Szwieykowska. It is a surname that survives to this day, with another possible modern spelling of “Szwiejkowska.”

  24. “Warszawska” is named after the city of Warsaw.

  25. “Ogiery oryginalne arabskie i wschodnie” means original arab and eastern stallions.

  26. “Krew i rassa wyższa orientalna” means blood and the higher oriental race.

  27. “Nie było rassy w zbieraninie” means there was no race in the collection.

  28. Now part of Romania, previously Moldavia.

  29. The Prince appears to have asked for a really mean horse.

  30. “Rassa angielska” means English race.

  31. Phonetic: Sh-vi-ree.

  32. Phonetic: Han-she-hoon.

  33. “Stanowny” is an Old Polish word not used today that means constant, unchanged, steady or staid. It can also mean correct, regular or decent. Since there is no simple English equivalent of this word the original Polish word is used in the English translation above with this explanation.

  34. “Pół-krwi” is translated as half-blood throughout this document.

  35. “Pełnej krwi” means of full blood.

  36. “Oryginalnych arabskich” means original arab.

  37. “Anglo-arabskich” means English-Arab or Anglo-Arab.

  38. Original Footnote: Posting this description of one of the most excellent herds, which was written first-hand by the esteemed owner for publication in the Agricultural Encyclopaedia, the editorial team would like to extend its full gratitude to the author, who in horse breeding, as well as in industry, made great advancements for the country, caused by the feeling of a citizen’s duties in the most extensive sense of the word.

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