Das arabische Pferd in Sławuta und anderen Gestüten des südwestlichen Russlands
Inaugural Dissertation with the Approval of the High Philosophical Faculty of the Royal University Breslau.
By Boleslaw v. Lukomski, from Posen.
Published by Royal Printing House Carl Hammer, Stuttgart, 1906.
Edited by Lyman Doyle. Translated from German to English by Anna Swartz.
The entire region southeast of Lemberg to the Black Sea, defined to the East by the Dniepr, in the West by the Pruth and the mountain range of the Carpathians, including the areas of Volhynia, Podolia, the Ukraine, Bessarabia, and Moldavia, next to the current gouvernements of Kiev and Cherson has been a constant battlefield for ages up to the early 19th century. Inhabited by wild, pugnacious tribes (for example the Scythians) in prehistoric times, it later became the transit route for armies during the migration of peoples which was facilitated by the steppe-like character of the landscape while to the north, the swamps and impenetrable forests of Lithuania would hamper this migration. During the Middle Ages, the flood of Mongols came over the region, followed by countless attacks by Tartars and Turks up to the 17th century. This was thwarted by the mighty troops of the Polish empire or Polish magnate houses, and Kosacks which were practically a people of adventurers and refugees from all corners of the Earth, conceived as basically a border patrol in the ‘wild fields’ of the Dniestr and the Dniepr. These Kosacks whose wild and untamable martial courage was not compatible with their dependency from Poland, often rebelled by usually forming an alliance with the Tatars and Moskowits; the biggest and bloodiest Kosack rebellion took place mid-seventeenth century, when they were supported by all Tartar hoards of the Krim, the Dobrudscha, the Nogaish Steppe, and the Silistrian and Rumelian Turks, stirred up the Ukrainian peasants, beat the Polish army, and could only be crushed after three years of the most horrendous destruction and bloodiest atrocities in the three-days battle of Beresteczko (1651). However, they kept rebelling, forming alliances with the Sultan, later the Russian Czar; Since then, the country was constantly under the spell of a looming war; Raids by Tartars and skirmishes with the Moskowits alternated with wars with the Turks. The 18th century brought back the bloody drama of a peasant revolt that culminated in the blood bath at Uman (1768). The peasants who were incited by the Orthodox clergy murdered approximately 20,000 people to conclude in the equally bloody subjugation of the populace. The direct consequence was a desperate fight of the confederate Polish patriots against the overbearing might of the Russian empire.
Even during times of peace, life on the steppe was nothing less than quiet. Just like with any situation of chaos in war, all kinds of unsavory packs of thieves and robbers came together: escaped slaves, criminals, adventurers, and other creatures of the dark; entire organized gangs arrived from the Moldovan Dniestr banks and from Bessarabia. The steppe with its overgrown deep valleys and scarce population offered excellent cover. Attacks on caravans moving down the Dniestr banks towards Odessa or Constantinople and raids into neighboring populated areas were occasions to plunder and loot. Since such gangs often counted more than 100 heads, a large troop contingent was usually required to quench the misdeeds. Consequently, a forceful troop cordon stretched along the Polish border from the Ros estuary into the Dniepr to the Siniucha estuary into the Bug, continuing to the Dniestr and upwards the Dniestr to Kamieniec-Podolski. At regular distances, larger contingents were stationed in villages and log cabins. From there, patrols were sent out to secure the border on horse. From time to time, large excursions into the steppe were organized to eliminate robber gangs or to scope the approaching enemy.
Considering the mentioned steppe-like character of the landscape and the vast distances that had to be covered in a relatively short time, it was a given and just natural that all the fights played out on horse. So we see those ‘savage landscapes’ typically inhabited by horse-riding peoples: in the Dark Ages it was the Skythes, in the Middle Ages the Tatars, in Modern Times the Kosaks. This area is also the origin of a modern branch of troops, the Ulans; the word ‘ulan’ is of Tatar origin; At first, it described a Tatar chief. It was then extended to naturalized Tatar families living in Poland and later to light cavalry recruited from their ranks. Under the given circumstances, an excellent high-performing horse was necessary to endure day and night marches while contending with the natural feed of the steppe. The challenge was to escape the fresh horses of the pursuing troops on such a tour de force, laden with loot after a successful raid. On the other side, the challenge would be to catch the fleeing hordes that would have a considerable head-start before they could reach safety. All this should be accomplished independent of the weather, seasons, or obstacles on the way. Such requirements could only be met by the Oriental horse and its crosses. Consequently, it was found here in all its types and spread all over Poland from here. The most predominant types that received special designations depending on their origin and usability were: the noble desert horse, called ‘bedew’ (probably originating from the word ‘Beduin’), which was less of a utility horse and generally used by the upper military ranks. The most popular horse for the light Polish cavalry was the taller and sturdier built Turkish ‘rumak’ (+Rumelier), while the heavier troops preferred the highly noble, but more massive ‘dzianet’ from a Spanish cross (the word originating from Arabic and ‘gennet’ in French and Spanish). Likewise, despite of the fact that many heavy horses were imported into Poland, the heavy, armored Polish cavalry had a preference for the Oriental blood because of its load capacity and endurance. The noble horse compensated for the lack of power and mass with its temperament which would even carry a heavy-set rider into the attack while it was unparalleled in its performance during the very important pursuit in the steppe. Among the common utility horses were the less noble, often heavy-headed, coarse, medium tall, but resilient Tatar ‘bachmat’ and its relative, the Kosak horse. Moreover, the Polish horse, which is mostly high in blood, used to be much appreciated because of its versatility. Although, the Polish horse was not a breed in itself but rather a cross of the aforementioned in part among them and in part with native horses in the area. The cross-breeding which for the most part was pursued in a rational manner produced a mostly uniform type, the type of the Arabian half-blood.
Thus, the selective breeding of the Polish horse was based on crossing in noble Oriental blood. Typically, the breeding stock consisted of horses taken from the Turks and Tatars. The material won in this way was not bad at all, since no Muselman would trust his life to a horse of inferior quality. These noble animals were the only benefit that the country could derive from the constant conflicts und horrible devastations. On the other hand, the permanent feuds were the backdrop for performance testing of the improved products from local breeding efforts.
In accordance with the needs of the country, the Oriental blood has remained in Wolhynia, Podolia, and the Ukraine to this day. It seems quite appropriate in a country where the railway network is sparse and where one could travel an entire day without the trace of a country road. It has persisted despite countless cross breeding, due to its extraordinary consistency. Which other horse would display a performance like a courier ride between the estates of Satanow and Slawuta (a distance of approximately 150 km), where it was a daily occurrence that a Kosak rider would get on his horse in the evening, ride through the night, and return with a response the following evening? Today, such courier rides are not the exception either.
With the continued influx of Arabian, respectively noble Oriental blood, some studs have bred material that entirely conforms to the type of the Original-Arabian horse. Unfortunately, due to the political unrest of the last two centuries, much and one could say most has been lost. Among what has been preserved, the most important is the stud in Slawuta in the Gouvernement Wolhynia. Hence, it is not a stud that is breeding full-blood Arabians in the strict sense of the term, but rather horses whose pedigree can be traced back to original or full-blood Arabians for several centuries. They met the mark of a pure-blooded Arabian type due to their line of ancestry and rearing method. The history of this stud and its satellite studs thus provides an interesting contribution to the history and development of the Arabian horse and its progeny on European soil.
From the Stud’s History
The stud Chrestowka or usually called stud Slawuta after the residence of its owner, goes back to the stud or rather a number of family studs belonging to various branches of the house of Count Sanguszko. A founding was not established because it goes back to a time when the Counts Sanguszko who originated from Lithuania, settled in Wolhynia and the Ukraine. They first had to take the land back from the intruding Tatars and Mongolian hordes. The war-like times as experienced by Wolhynia and the Ukraine for several centuries, favored the development of the studs. These could be removed to more distant areas before an encroaching enemy, while conflicts with tribes owning thoroughbred horses, like the Turks, Tatars, and Tscherkessans offered the opportunity to obtain Arabian and Oriental breeding stock for the studs that were based on grazing the steppe of Wolhynia and Podolia which is so beneficial in horse breeding.
This is likely the only stud that can point to such a development while all the others in these areas had their founders or can establish their foundation in more recent times through documents or tradition.
Although indirectly, the stud has been mentioned in a Wolhynian document from the year 1528 which includes the register of all land owners in Wolhynia; This document describes that back then the House Sanguszko alone contributed 126 riders for the war effort. The purpose of the stud was originally to provide the remounts for a stand-by force to defend the border and to ward off enemy attacks. As can be deduced from the aforementioned, the breeding program focused on Arabian, respectively Oriental half-blood which back then simply was called the Polish horse.
Over the centuries, the history of the stud was tightly intertwined with the history of the House Sanguszko, with the growth of the estate and its influence. Up to the 18th century, it was strongly influenced by the historic development of the country until family matters caused a tumultuous time. At first, it was expanded by assimilating the stud Czerkasy which formerly belonged to Count Ostrogski and came into the possession of Count Paul Sanguszko by marriage with a née Countess Lubomirska. After the Count’s death, the estate was weakened again by transferring the main stud back to the Counts Lubomirski. The remaining stud was repartitioned among three sons and consolidated to two parts after the death of the eldest, the studs Chrestowka and Zaslaw. The latter failed around the middle of the 19th century and disappeared without a trace.
The end of the 18th century begins a new era for the stud. The Count Sanguszko’s stud Chrestowka of today is a creation of Count Hieronym, the last Woiwoden of Wolhynia (deceased 1812), a son of the Krongrossmarschall Count Paul. Since the first attempts of a systematic improvement of the stud through the acquisition of original Arabians are made under his reign, the main history of the stud of today begins here because, as mentioned, all its side branches are missing. The stud of Count Hieronym Sanguszko was located in the Starostei Czerkasy on the Dniepr, as well as in Wolhynia on the farms belonging to the estate Bialogrodka: Chrestowka, Tarnowka and Polachowo in the former Principality, now district Zaslaw.
Some reports by the stud director Rybinski at the time give us some insight into the stock at the time before the introduction of original Arabians; I have to start by saying that the horses back then had no actual names yet, as this is usual now. Rather, they often were named after especially obvious characteristics in their exterior, like coat color and height, sometimes even after their beauty flaws or their descent, homeland and breed. With a certain preference, however, they were named after their previous owners that they were acquired from. So, the report mentions, for example:
In the year 1789, the stud Jankowice (in the Starostei Czerkasy) housed the following sires:
Black-brown stallion ‘Cesa_z’,
Dark-brown stallion ‘Welezynski’,
Chestnut stallion ‘Andrusiewicz’,
In the year 1790:
Tall Turkish stallion,
Apple gray stallion,
Neapolitan gray stallion
Chestnut stallion ‘Andrusiewicz’,
Brown stallion without a marking.
In the year 1799, the following sires stood in Chrestowka:
English dark chestnut stallion (from Count Eustachy Sanguszko),
Apple gray stallion (from Stecki),
Chestnut stallion (from Starzynski),
Apple gray stallion (from Walewski).
The stud report from August 19th of the same year lists the following sires:
White Egyptian stallion,
Brown stallion (from Count Janusz Sanguszko),
Gray stallion (from Count Josef Czartoryski at Korzec),
Rose grey stallion from Pruszynski (brother-in-law of Count Hieronym),
Grey stallion from own breeding program.
English chestnut stallion from Count Eustachy,
Chestnut stallion ‘ Starzynski’,
Chestnut stallion ‘Warszawczyk’,
Chestnut stallion ‘Elzner’,
Grey stallion from own breeding program,
Brown Persian stallion.
The total inventory of horses according to the same report was as follows:
10 Riding horses,
3 Hussar and Kosak horses,
16 Carriage horses,
9 ‘Tour’ horses (‘Rozgonne’).
51 Young stallions,
33 Mares foaled in 1799,
33 Suckling foals.
11 Foaled mares,
11 Suckling foals,
14 Pregnant mares,
15 Young mares,
17 Young stallions.
7 Mares foaled in 1799,
7 Suckling foals,
30 Pregnant mares,
20 Young mares,
8 Young stallions.
52 Mares of various ages.
Total stock in the year 1799: 423 horses.
‘These details show us,’ explains Count Roman Sanguszko (referring to those in the report), ‘how the studs of the then-magnates were mixed and run thoughtlessly. They were saved by the circumstance that at the times of the Turkish and Tatar attacks, the heroic nobles defending our country, like the Counts Korecki, Wisniowiecki, Ostrogski, Sieniazski seized the opportunity in war to capture Original-Arabian and Oriental stallions and that from there, noble blood and race came into the country.
‘There just was no defined breeding direction in a systematic stud leadership; everything was driven by chance, as can be seen from the list of stallions and mares. There was no breed in the stud that consisted of horses of inferior ancestry; this leads us to believe that all larger and smaller studs in Wolhynia and the Ukraine must not have had any value in terms of ‘breed’. Rather they were based on an excellent native variety that evolved out of the necessity to defend the country and that due to the favorable local conditions for horse breeding even achieved a high degree of perfection.’
Around the end of the 18th century, the first Original Arabian arrived at the stud; it was a black-brown stallion which had been procured for King Stanislaw August, the last King of Poland (abdicated in 1795) from Stambul; in the opinion of the King who was biased towards Western European customs and traditions, the stallion was not tall enough. It was given to Mr. Politowski who happened to be at the royal court and who sold it to Count Sanguszko. The stallion was used at the stud under the name ‘Politowski’.
Since over time, the wars with the Turks and the Tatars ceased, the need arose to procure the noble Oriental sires by other means; on the other hand, the political relationship with the Turkish empire had normalized to a degree where an excursion to the Orient via Jassy and Moldavia became possible. A plan was devised by the Polish magnates, among them Count Czartoryski, Count Sanguszko and Earl Potocki to procure the breeding sires from Constantinople. The envoy for Potocki was stable master Obodynski who is a prominent figure in the history of National horse breeding; Count Sanduszko sent his representative, a certain Burski there, whose expedition took two years. At first, Burski had little success; In a letter from July 3rd 1803 to the Count, he reports that he was unhappy about the fact that after three months and many expenses made, he was unable to find any horses and therefore could not return. ‘I have therefore attempted,’ he says in the letter, ‘to travel to Arabia, towards Aleppo with the goal to obtain horses. Although this trip is far, it will hopefully not be in vain. Everybody here agrees that horses are available there.’ He intended to act as a faithful servant, including to put his life on the line in order to execute the will of his client. In contrast, both of the other stable masters preferred to fall from their master’s favor over exposing themselves to danger. In fact, such travels were quite difficult and dangerous in those times. It required a high dose of courage and determination. Maybe, Count Hieronym might consequently be regarded as the first European breeder to organize an expedition for the acquisition of original animals directly from Arabia. Other accounts of the events describe Burski as less heroic in his pursuit, rather squandering the money in Constantinople and consequently bringing back less horses than he should have. He returned after two years and brought five stallions that turned out to be of significant service to the stud. They were the following stallions: ‘Krolik’, one ‘Brown’, one ‘Black-brown’, one ‘White’, and the coat color of the fifth is unknown. The Black-brown and the gray stallion were later sold to Count Rzewuski, the Brown to Count Branicki for 1,000 Rubel.
After the death of Count Hieronym in the year 1812, the stud Chrestowka consolidated all satellite elements of the stud, namely those of Czerkasy. The political upheaval at the time forced the son of Count Hieronym, Count Eustachy Sanguszko, to flee the country; his estate was put under sequestration. The little that could be saved from the stud was hidden in the wide forests of Smolderow. For some time after the incident, the stud of the Governor of Wolhynia, Kumberlej, in Little Russia excelled due to the mares abducted from Chrestowka.
In the year 1813, Count Eustachy returned to his estate following the decree of a general amnesty. Being a passionate horse man and horse enthusiast, he soon gave his special attention to the stud, namely adopting his father’s principles. Since in the meantime, the current political situation made a new expedition to the Orient impossible, for the time being he purchased four Oriental stallions from Jassy, General Count Gudowicz, who had them in his possession dating back to the wars with the Turks.
‘Ptak’, gray and a
Although of striking exterieur, these horses proved inappropriate for the stud, especially in comparison with the previous original Arabians. Their progeny was utterly disappointing and therefore they were soon culled.
Moreover, the Count purchased the white ‘Zboj’ in Dubno from someone whose name remained unknown. According to historic accounts, the excellent, noble and strong stallion only responded when unrestrained and treated with kindness and could even be shoed. Although he was the best riding horse of his time, he failed as a sire.
A horse from this time should be mentioned because its name found entry in the history books. The black stallion ‘Szumka’ was given as a gift to Count Josef Poniatowski in 1810 and came to be his favorite riding horse. It is said that the old Polish warriors who had enlisted with the army of Napoleon I., predicted a misfortune happening to the Count. According to old soldier superstition, the black coat color would bring bad luck and was therefore unpopular. Indeed, ‘Szumka’ was the horse that the Count would ride in the ill-fated battle of Leipzig. The brother of ‘Szumka’ was the personal riding horse of Count E. Sanguszko and has regularly been depicted on the Count’s rider portraits.
Following the failure with the Gudowicz stallions, Count Eustachy decided in favor of an expedition to the Orient. In the year 1816, he sent his stable master Moszynski to search for appropriate breeding material. Moszynski was given 4,700 Dukats for purchasing and travel expenses, which today would be worth approximately 65,00 Francs. He also gave detailed instructions, giving Moszynski full authority over the use of the money. At the same time, he was expressing the goal of bringing back at least three sires and additionally a riding horse that would be appropriate with regard to the Count’s personality and age. Contrary to expectations, Moszynski completed the task to satisfaction. In November 1818, he returned by land bringing ten horses with him, including nine stallions and one mare. The expense for the purchase was approximately 32,000 Francs, while the rest of the allowance went to travel and miscellaneous expenses. The horses were:
- Brown stallion ‘Obejan’, called the tall one, purchased in Aleppo for 3,150 Francs. He lived only a short time and left a legacy of three very good mares.
- Chestnut stallion ‘Dzedran’, purchased in the desert Hama for 2,200 Francs, a couple of years later sold to the royal Prussian National stud Neustadt a/D.
- Gray stallion ‘Rabdan’, purchased there as well for 3,700 Francs, later sold to Count Dzialynski.
- White stallion ‘Haylan’, acquired in Damascus for 3,500 Francs. He turned out to be the best horse in the transport and founded an era at the stud. His son ‘Szumka II’ out of ‘Polka’, a mare with English pedigree, was said to be the most beautiful horse of his time. However, he did not stand the test in breeding. Another ‘Haylan’ son, named ‘Walter-Scott’ was sold to the King of Württemberg.
- Brown stallion ‘Seglavi’, purchased in the desert of Swira for 2,000 Francs.
- Gray colt ‘Kbeszan’, purchased in the desert of Babak for 700 Francs.
- Gray stallion ‘Dzielf’, purchased there as well, a very successful father horse.
- Chestnut mare ‘Seglavia’, purchased in Hanschechun for 2,00 Francs.
- Chestnut stallion ‘Semrani-Seglavi’, also called Samson, purchased in Stambul for 2,800 Francs.
- Gray stallion ‘Nezdy’, purchased there as well, for the amount of 10,200 Francs.
Considering the purchase prices that can only be given as an approximation here because they were paid in Turkish currency (Lews) at the time, they cannot be called high, with the exception of the last one. This is due to the fact that there was little demand for Arabians at the time when Europe predominantly focused on the Manège horsemanship. Only sporadically, they were imported to England where the full-blood was about to flourish. The price for ‘Nezdy’ was probably this high because he was the selected riding horse for the Count as per instructions. The Count was simply delighted about these horses and extremely proud of his property which is apparent in his contemporary correspondence. His great pleasure was ‘Nezdy’ who according to his description was silver-white with black longhair, vigorous, extremely beautiful and spirited and must have been a pleasure to ride. Unfortunately, ‘Nezdy’ succumbed to a colic within hours in July 1819.
Moszynski’s expedition laid the main foundation for today’s Arabian pure-breed of Slawuta, namely based on ‘Haylan’. It was since then consistently developed further until present time. The next influx of new blood happened in the year 1821. Count Sanguszko employed an Arab from Syria by the name of Arutin for the purpose of procuring original Arabians. As a requirement, the horses had to be delivered to Slawuta or Odessa. Arutin was in this function until 1826 and during these five years, he brought 14 horses to Slawuta in three transports, including 10 stallions and four mares which were as follows:
Chestnut stallion ‘Koheil-a.Dzius,
Chestnut stallion ‘Hemdani’,
Chestnut stallion ‘Dzielf’,
Brown stallion ‘Obejan’ with the suffix the short one,
Grey stallion ‘Giejk’,
Grey stallion ‘Sebh’,
Grey stallion ‘Gbeschan’,
Grey stallion ‘Managi’,
Grey stallion ‘Benissar’,
Black stallion ‘Antar’,
Gray mare ‘Gazella’,
Gray mare ‘Gawra’,
Gray mare ‘Hadba’,
Gray mare ‘Gidy’.
‘Obejan’ was sold to President Proskura who owned a stud in the Ukraine. The following were successful breeders: ‘Koheil-a-Dzius’, ‘Managi’, ‘Benissar’; By contrast, ‘Hemdani’, ‘Giejk’, ‘Sebh’, and ‘Gbechan’ were utterly unsuccessful, as were the mares ‘Gawra’ and ‘Gidy’ who remained sterile throughout their lives.
In the year 1842, on orders of the Count, another commissioner by the name of Glioccho acquired the chestnut stallion ‘Dzidran’ in Constantinople.
Count Roman Sanguszko made a trip to the Orient himself in the year 1844 and on his way in Aleppo bought an exceptionally beautiful and noble stallion from Musselim Batran Aga. It was a gray stallion with black longhair, last descendant of a famous family from the strain Seglavi-Obejan, who was given the name ‘Batran-Aga’. Additionally, he obtained the young gray stallion ‘El-Szam’ from the strain Obejan. Both stallions were sent to Slawuta overland and did not arrive at their destination until 1846 under extreme difficulties.
In 1845, the head count on the stud was 399 horses, including 183 brood mares, 116 fillies and 100 colts; then a separation of the estate occurred with 295 horses (137 mare, 87 fillies, 71 colts) remaining in Slawuta with Count Roman Sanguszko, while the remainder of 104 horses, including 46 mares, 29 fillies, and 29 colts went with the entire estate Antoniny as dowry for Princess Maria Sanguszko to her spouse, Count Alfred Potocki, father of the current owner of Antoniny. The horses were moved to the stud Satanow on the Zbrucz in Podolia.
Up to the year 1855, the following original stallions arrived in Slawuta:
1853: The Obejan-Istambulat stallion ‘Azet’, black roan, born in Kaifa, Beni-Sachar-Bedouins.
1854: The Gidran stallion ‘Abucheil’, gray, at the time Count J. Dzieduszycki acquired both in the region of Angora and sold them to Slawuta. As Count Czapski reported in the description of the purchase, ‘Abucheil’ on his mother’s side was a descendant in direct line from the Prophet’s mare. His father was a half-brother of ‘Batran-Aga’. Under special consideration, he was explicitly offered to the Count because a large family could not agree on his ownership. He left a large progeny (50 heads), vivacious and strong, and was acquired by Count Branicki for his stud where he disappointed with no progeny.
1855: ‘Abu-Lele’, purchased in Berlin from a Nubian travelling through, and
‘Obejan-Srebrny’ (the silver one), raised in Kochanowka (Galicia) sired by ‘Obejan’, acquired for the stud by Count Wladyslaw, brother of Count Roman. In Count Roman’s opinion, he did not appear pure-bred enough and so he was sold to the imperial studs in 1857 where he was said to have been of good service.
In the year 1857, Count Roman organized another expedition to the Orient under the leadership of two stud representatives: Swierczynski and Czerniawski. This expedition took place under particularly difficult circumstances. The previous Russian-Turkish war and the protracted, bloody subjugation of the rebellious Wahabits by Ibrahim-Pascha had severely decimated the horse population. From the remainder, General v. Brudermann, the envoy of the Austrian government, had already selected the best picks; Finally, the trip was not without dangers due to the hostilities between the Christian and Muslim population and the Bedouins against the government. Nevertheless, the envoys succeeded to make some very good acquisitions. The four horses purchased for Slawuta were:
White stallion ‘Mahomet-el-Hassan’ from the strain Koheilan from the family Haithali; a horse of extremely correct and flawless build,
Flea bitten grey stallion ‘Anazi’, a typical desert horse,
Dapple gray stallion ‘Seglavi-Ardzebi’,
Gray stallion with black longhair ‘Koheilan-Abu’.
According to the Count, the selection of these horses had been executed with great care which was one of Swierczynski’s strengths, and with great experience and expertise, as compared to earlier expeditions.
In 1858, the stud experienced a heavy blow due to a severe storm that demolished the stables in Chrestowka and killed about a dozen of the best mares.
In the years that followed, these original stallions arrived at Slawuta:
1859 via England:
‘Seglavi’ (Black Arabian), black and ‘Indyanin’, gray stallion with black longhair, originally from Kolkata and later sold to Count Branicki in Szamrajowka where he got the name ‘Nizam’.
1861: ‘Derwisch’, silver gray, purchased in North Arabia,
1862: ‘Yemen’, light-brown, his origin is given away by his name,
1864: ‘Feruk-Han’, black-brown, originally from Middle Asia, purchased from the Persian envoy in Paris through Count Dzieduszycki and handed over to Slawuta,
‘Schech-Mahomet’, white, accidentally discovered by the Count when hitched to a postal carriage.
In the course of the last years, the Count had made the observation that the enormous pastures, formerly at the stud’s disposal, have been decimated to such a degree that the development of the horses that were used to those conditions started to suffer. The progress made in land management increased the proportion of cropland. The Count introduced an ‘imitation’ rearing method following the English example which also included performance testing. To this end, he established a racing stable and its occupants competed against the horses of stud owners from three provinces on the private racetracks in Bialocerkiew and Antoniny. Hereby the following stallions were stand-outs: ‘Dzimbulat’, ‘Giaur’, and ‘Szarlatan. The racing stable was also active outside the country: ‘Ultimatum’ from ‘Gr. Obejan’ out of ‘Roza’ won the National Prize Second Class and ‘Namiestnik’ from ‘Hojny’ out of ‘Primroza’ won the Emperor Prize Second Class in Lemberg 1862.
According to the Count’s assessment, this training has had a very beneficial effect on the development, especially the growth of the stud’s horses. However, there are no numbers available that would demonstrate the actual height of his horses.
In an effort to elevate horse breeding in the country, the Count drafted an elaborate plan for a licensing and award system in collaboration with the National stud leadership. Just when the project started to find traction and the Count was intent to send the best race horses to Lemberg, the catastrophe of 1863/4 broke loose (Polish uprising). This event did not just upset the thought-out plan but gave National horse breeding a mortal blow. The noble class owning those estates and studs were ruined and their successors, the Russian ‘Czynowniks’ had no interest in it.
Malignant strangles was a constant nuisance at the stud. The Count attributed this to the housing system, holding horses in large groups in the stables. To remedy the situation, the Count recommends the English housing system of one or two mares in paddocks.
In 1865, Count Sanguszko lost almost all his stallions to a severe lung epidemic. Sympathetic friends offered him two breeding stallions as a gift, which were ‘Wianek’ from Count Alexander Branicki’s own breeding program in Bialocerkiew and the Arabian full-blood stallion ‘Feruk-Han den Jüngeren’, a black stallion bred from original parents, an excellent horse, though not entirely correct in the build of the hindquarters.
Under knowledgeable leadership, the stud now returned to a path of a calmer and more positive development. However, there was a lack of sires and the Count was not able to undertake an expedition to the Orient. After making great efforts, he purchased the original stallion ‘Aghil-Aga’ from the Royal Hungarian stud Babolna in 1866. ‘Aghil-Aga’, brown, from the strain Koheilan-Adjuzé, was acquired through General v. Brudermann in Syria and transferred to the stud in 1857. The son of ‘Aghil-Aga’ by the same name played an important role at the stud. He was borrowed by the stud Gumniska in 1887 and we will learn more about him when describing the stud.
In the same year, the stud acquired the brown ‘Jamri’ from the strain Nedjd, who was imported in utero after the auction of Ibrahim Pascha’s stud near Kairo, and the gray stallion ‘Bagdadi’ from Count Dzieduszycki.
In 1867, the original Arabian ‘Hammad’, a gray stallion from the strain Obejan-Abu-Geras was acquired from Babolna, followed in 1868 by the white ‘Hadudi’ from the strain Hadban who was to this point the main sire in the Hofgestüt Lippiza. Both were part of General v. Brudermann’s transports in 1857. The Count took special delight in the fact that he could acquire specifically these horses from the Brudermann transport for his stud because he already believed at the time that they were the best acquisitions when he inspected the transport at the arrival.
After transferring the estate Slawuta to his nephew, the current owner, the Count moved his stud-farm to the rented government domain Wolice because he dreaded Chrestowka for its frequent mishaps. When his lease was revoked for political reasons, he moved his stud to Satanow; after his death, the stud later consolidated again in Chrestowka, whereas the stud of Count Potocki settled in Antoniny. In Satanow, the Count took part in the English racing stable managed by Count Potocki. In 1869, the stud’s inventory was as follows:
Brood mares 45
Half-blood mares 4
Foals and other horses 141
Total 190 heads.
English full-blood mares 7
English half-blood mares (from Ozora from
Count Esterhazy) 3
Anglo-Arabian mares 6
Original Arabian mares 2
Arabian mares, own breeding 53
Young mares 17
88 of them brood mares.
Sires in service:
‘Graf Bismarck’ (Full-blood),
In the time up to the year 1872, the following original stallions were imported:
‘Hemdani’, chestnut, a gift from Sefer-Pascha (Koscielski), who in return was gifted four glamorous gray stallions by ‘Mahomet-el-Hassan’,
‘Trafani’, chestnut, and
‘Koheilan’, brown, both purchased by Arthur-Bey (Zimmermann) in Cairo, in addition to two original mares, the white and the black ‘Dzielfa’, and the chestnut stallion
‘Ras-el-Abiad’, Koheilan; finally
‘Arabi-Pascha’, chestnut stallion with a blaze, raised from original parents by Count Eustachy Sanguszko.
Other additions to the stud were:
1875: ‘Erzak-Seglavi’, Original, white; favorable entries in the stud annals, leaving a legacy of several excellent sires, like ‘Achmet-Ejub’ and ‘Attyk’.
1879: ‘Obejan-Scharaki’, Original, brown, purchased from Sefer-Pascha, and ‘Akbar’, Original, brown, purchased in England from the Prince of Wales.
1880: ‘Obejan-Geriz’, Original, cherry-brown, purchased in Cairo.
1887: ‘Handzar’, chestnut, raised from original parents by Count Branicki at the stud Uzina.
1888: ‘Jussuf’, brown, purchased at the royal Hungarian stud Babolna, will be discussed later.
1889: The Originals: ‘Wodan’, brown and ‘Semchan’, gray, both acquired through Count Eustachy in Cairo.
1890: ‘Koheilan-Gidran’, Original, brown, purchased in Warsaw from a Turk, together with ‘Abu-Argub’, Original, brown, who remained in service at the stud until 1901 when he was sent to Gumniska. His progeny stands out in type and class.
1891: The Originals: ‘Antar’, brown, who was a very successful sire, and ‘Dewrisz’, gray, both purchased in the Orient.
1896: The Originals: ‘Seglavi-Gidran’, brown, purchased at the Khediv’s stud.
‘Massad’, Seglavi, chestnut, acquired from Scherif Ali Pascha in Cairo, left excellent but unfortunately only very few progeny because he died in 1899,
‘Rueli’, gray, same pedigree as the aforementioned, is a sire in Chrestowka to this day.
In 1900, the current stud director, retired General Trippenbach, purchased three original stallions in Constantinople:
‘Ilderim’, chestnut. All three sires are currently in service in Chrestowka.
According to the report of Mr. St. v. Bojanowski, the 1901 inventory at the stud was as follows:
10 main sires, including 6 Originals:
‘Rueli’; moreover, the Babolnian:
‘Jussuf’, and 3 stallions from the own breeding program:
‘Musafer-Pascha’, gray, from ‘Rymnik’-‘Reduta’,
‘Mendok’, gray, from ‘Attyk’-‘Cigaretta’,
‘Mazepa’, brown, from ‘Achmet-Ejub’-‘Delja’.
101 Brood mares,
20 Suckling foals,
240 Heads total.
The last acquisition of original blood for the stud is the gray stallion ‘Kibiszan’ that was casually purchased by the Count in Odessa in 1903.
To this day, Slawuta has imported a total of 80 original Arabians, including 73 stallions and seven mares.
This short historical presentation supports the convincing argument that the products of the stud Slawuta rightfully can be considered pure-blooded Arabians. Even though their pedigree is less pure than for example Count Dzieduszycki’s Arabians in Jezupol and Jablonwo in Galicia where the origin of the stud goes back to three imported original mares and exclusively original stallions. Taking into account only generations from the beginning of the systematic influx of new blood since approximately 1820, the proportion of the old blood would amount to fractions in the order of less than a hundred thousandth of one percent. For this reason, they have always been highly regarded as breeding material and have been in high demand everywhere; as mentioned, a stallion has been sold to the King of Württemberg, another (‘Janczar’) to the King of Holland; many went to National studs (for example Janow in the Kingdom of Poland) and National stallion stations and not to mention private breeding programs. However, since the English full-blood has claimed the first place in breeding noble animals due to changes in modern requirements, the demand for Arabians has naturally decreased. Nevertheless, stallions from Slawuta are still in high demand where breeding Arabians has remained the best adaptation to local conditions, mainly Russian and Galician studs and stallion stations. I will use the opportunity later to support this claim with some data. Mares that are rejected for breeding bring a lower sales price and can only be put to good use as racing horses for light weights or as Juckers, like a little while ago a four-in-hand of gray mares sold to the Marstall in Petersburg for the Empress’ personal use. Although, when considering modern requirements, the breeding program in Slawuta might not offer any success in financial terms, the stud and its breeding goal are so tightly intertwined with the name and tradition of the House Sanguszko that its continued existence does not seem to be in jeopardy for the foreseeable future.
The current stud Antoniny has chosen a different path for its breeding program. At first, it stayed on the same course with Slawuta; There was a tight cooperation between both studs, indicated by the fact that for a long time even after the separation in 1845, the stud had mostly stallions from Slawuta. Over time, Count Potocki began to import his own original stallions for the stud. In addition, an English full-blood breeding program was developed that mostly was supposed to serve racing purposes and was pursued together with Count Sanguszko (the racing stable was in Antoniny). Simultaneously, this was the beginning of an Anglo-Arabian breeding program which can be seen from the stud inventory of Slawuta from the year 1869. The horse inventory in 1845 was as mentioned before: 46 brood mares, 29 yung mares and 29 young stallions, in total 104 heads.
The following original stallions were imported to the stud:
1847 ‘Benissar’ (see Slawuta),
1854 ‘Abuheil’ (see Slawuta),
1859 ‘Mahomet-el-Hassan’ (see Slawuta),
1867 ‘Jamri’ (see Slawuta),
1866 ‘Ibu-ed-Derri’, originally from India, purchased via England from the Prince of Wales,
1882 ‘Faraon’ brown, who is the ancestor of the best horses of today’s stud. He also came from India and had successfully competed on racing tracks there.
In the year 1882, the stud moved entirely to Antoniny. Next to the Arabian, now the Anglo-Arabian breeding was practiced to a larger extent; the English full-blood breeding ran in parallel. The following sires were imported for the Arabian breeding program:
1886 ‘Achmet’, black, raised at Count Branicki’s in Bialocerkiew from ‘Farhan’ (Original),
1890 ‘Obejan-Scharak’, original, called ‘Euclid’ in Antoniny, acquired in Kolkata where he was very successful on the racing circuit, father of a highly noble and distinctive strain of mares.
1895 ‘Sultan’, acquired in Constantinople, still at the stud to this day.
Additionally, the gray stallion ‘Zarif’ from Babolna was used for some time during the last decade. ‘Zarif’ was more successful here than his compatriot ‘Jussuf’ in Slawuta, as well as a number of stallions from the own breeding program, like ‘Tybet’, chestnut stallion from ‘Zarif’ out of ‘Chiwa’ from ‘Jamri’, who together with ‘Zarif’ was sold to the Russian national stud in Strelezk, and there was also ‘Priam’ from ‘Obejan-Scharak’ out of ‘Preciosa’ from ‘Jamri’.
The following English full-blood stallions were imported since 1882:
- ‘Csatar’, chestnut, from ‘Daniel O’Rourke’ out of ‘Fern’, his offspring includes the Anglo-Arabian mare ‘Csatarka’ that has remained at the stud to this day.
- ‘Melbourne’, chestnut, from ‘Saxifrage’ out of ‘Australia’ has left several good mares.
- ‘Kadi’, black, from ‘Silvio’ out of ‘La Creole’, has only left English mares, among them ‘Roxana’ and ‘Esmeralda’ who both were successful racing horses.
- ‘Loadstone’ from ‘Pellegrino’ out of ‘Sellyvak’, was mainly used for half-blood breeding on the Folwarks.
The following are currently still in use on the stud and will be discussed elsewhere:
- ‘Marshall-Saxe’, from ‘Newminster’ out of ‘Beryl’.
- ‘Hulton’ from ‘Galopin’ out of ‘Intruder’.
- ‘Le Firmament’ from ‘Le Sancy’ out of ‘Queen of Pearls’.
- ‘Sand Box’, from ‘Matchbox’ out of ‘Gekauft’.
Although the breeding program in Antoniny focuses more on the production of utility horses that are needed for the Count’s Marstall and although the products of the stud have garnered a well-deserved and widespread reputation in this respect among sports enthusiasts, officers and others, they also find due appreciation as breeding material. Numerous sales of stallions are the proof. At this point, I would only like to mention two instances: the previously mentioned sale of ‘Tybet’ to Strelezk and that of the dark-brown Arabian stallion ‘Mohort’ from ‘Faraon’-‘Preciosa’ to the Austrian national stud Radautz.
Animal Stock at the Studs
The estate of Slawuta, which the stud belongs to, is the property of His Serene Highness Count Roman Sanguszko and is located on the South-West-Railway in the Russian Gouvernement Wolhynia (Slawuta is a railway station on the line Kiew-Grajewo). The estate sprawls largely around the city of Zaslaw and comprises an area of approximately 63,000 ha, including 38,000 ha forest, 3,750 ha pastures, and 3,000 ha bodies of water and unproductive land. Approximately one third of the cropland is leased out and the rest is farmed by the owner himself, despite of his respectable age. The management of the estate is up-to-date with modern operating organization. The estate is structured into three districts that are each headed by a director: Slawuta, Zaslaw, and Bialogrodka. They are supervised by a ‘control department’.
The land has a somewhat steppe-like character and is a plain that was carved into by numerous main and side valleys, at the bottom of which the endlessly long peasant villages are interspersed, surrounded by pastures. This imparts the landscape something picturesque and a certain romanticism that is based on historical memory.
The soil is a dark, mild, humous, permeable, and in parts sandy clay that is conducive to the cultivation of basically all field crops, whereby rapeseed, wheat, and sugar beets play an important role. The exception are potatoes that thrive less satisfactorily and therefore are grown to a limited extent. In turn, crops that are rarely cultivated in Western Europe, like hemp and millet are grown in abundance here.
Animal husbandry flourishes to an extensive degree, especially horse breeding and the breeding of (Negretti) sheep. Cattle breeding is not done extensively because it does not pay off. There is no market for milk which is why there exists only one dairy operation close to Zaslaw with approximately 50 cows and corresponding dairy plant. Besides, there are large contingents of young Ukrainian steers (gray steppe cattle) being imported that are used as work animals on the estates and then are fattened. The horse material on the estates is almost consistently Arabian half-blood, mostly a product of crossing Arabian stallions with the progeny of Ardennes stallions and Arabian, respectively half-Arabian mares. The breeding of Ardennes which had been widely practiced in the entire country at the time, was abandoned because their products were not suitable for further breeding.
The horses are well-shaped, broad, strong animals with flawless bone and especially well-built croup. Those whose veins still carry some Ardennes blood are easy to recognize by their slightly wavy longhair and the croup form that usually with such crosses is wide on top and narrows downwards. Moreover, it is sometimes split. They are excellent, enduring animals that are suitable for any use. I had the opportunity to see their performance potential in action for myself.
Livestock numbers are very significant. The district of Zaslaw with approximately 5,000 ha under private management reports the following in large livestock alone:
400 work oxen,
210 heads of young cattle (mostly work oxen),
380 work horses, and
240 foals of all age groups.
The forests leave a tremendous impression, not only in terms of their vastness (going from Slawuta to Zaslaz is 26 km stretch through never-ending forest) but also in terms of the mighty exemplars of singular trees. Although, forest management foresees a turnover of 120 years for conifers and 200 years for oaks, the owner has only as much felled as is necessary for the own demand and the need to run the two sawmills. Since this only corresponds to about half of the stand slated for removal, the forests of Slawuta with their fertile soil bear entire territories of tree giants.
Finally, it remains to be highlighted that the estate also includes a highly developed industry, considering the local conditions. The industrial businesses are as follows:
A cloth factory with a historical reputation beyond national borders, a tannery and a brewery in Slawuta. Additionally, the following are located partly in Slawuta and partly over the entire estate:
Two steam sawmills, three distilleries, two large and approximately thirty smaller mills, three paper mills, two limekilns, and several brickyards.
Slawuta does not own a sugar refinery. There is one on Slawuta territory, close to Zaslaw and the sugar beet production of the estate is processed there. However, the plant does not belong to Count Sanguszko but rather to Count Potocki in Antoniny.
It should also be mentioned that the estate of Slawuta owns a sanatorium for tuberculosis, located on the Horyn river in a very pleasant setting. The sanatorium is leased to a physician who treats patients with air and Kumys” (mare’s milk).
The Count’s chateau is located in Slawuta and so is the Marstall, separated from it by a wonderful park. The Marstall forms a quadrangle, including the cart sheds, the tack rooms, and servants’ quarters around a central court, much like a medieval castle courtyard. Adjacent towards the road is the apartment of the stud director, Colonel a. D. Trippenbach.
The stables house approximately 70 Arabian stallions that are at the disposition of the owner and estate as riding and carriage horses. Following an old tradition, His Highness only houses stallions in his Marstall and therefore, there are no stallions at the stud – this includes young stallions of different ages and those designated for sale. By contrast, the sires, among them five originals, stand on the actual stud-farm Chrestowka, approximately 60 km away from Slawuta.
Picture 1. Stud Chrestowka (Slawuta). Mares on the way to pasture.
During my visit in Slawuta, Mr. Trippenbach graciously had approximately a dozen of stallions one by one presented to me, followed by a grey four-in-hand and a chestnut five-in-hand hitched teams.
The stallions have a very balanced appearance, like the stud in general – small (in average 148 cm, more than 150 is rarely seen), dry, with compact, short build, delicate extremities and fine, very characteristic head with intelligent and alert glance, while very trusting and of good-natured temperament. Briefly, seeing those horses, one is automatically reminded of all the descriptions of the Arabian horse ever read. There is a striking difference between seeing horses in the stable and at the presentation. While they almost disappear in their boxes and look like ponies, especially for the eye that is trained to see more massive forms, they literally grow while moving. As if they were aware of this being mustered and having to make a good figure, they tend to show the viewer their most flattering side after leaving the stable. They follow their handlers graciously, with erect neck and posing tail, sometimes interrupted by purposeful naïve jumps.
Now, it would be impossible to assume or to expect that, given such quantity of stallion material, all of it should be flawless and top quality. With the versatile demand from the farm and the management of carts, etc. the less pleasing exemplars also find appropriate use. However, keeping all stallions is not the best strategy for the breeder reputation of the stud. At least, I have on several occasions heard from critics and second-hand that this fact is levied against the stud management: “In Slawuta, so it was said, everything is kept and consequently, a buyer has no guarantee that what he is seeing, is actually top quality material because there is no selection process.” And similar comments can be heard. In the meantime, the owner of Slawuta can, like no one else, ignore those criticisms in the name of tradition.
Among the presented stallions, the following stood out:
‘Xerxes’, dark-brown, five years old, from ‘Abu-Argub’ (original) out of ‘Orgia’ 532 (number of the stud register), a very sleek and typical horse with much temperament and pleasant action,
‘Wiarus’, dark-brown, v. gef., six years old, from ‘Mazepa’ from Achmet-Ejub’ from ‘Erzak-Seglavi’ (original) out of ‘Numea; 523, similar to the previous,
‘Orient’, gray, 11 years old, from ‘Antar’ (original) out of ‘Republika’, not as short and compact as the previously mentioned but with stronger bone and strong back.
Among the four-year-olds, the following need to be mentioned:
Both dark-grey stallions from ‘Musafer-Pasza from ‘Rymnik’: ‘Abukir II’ out of ‘Orchidea’ 538 and ‘Agram’ out of ‘Fantasia III’ 443, furthermore:
‘Attila’, dark-brown, h. l. gef., from ‘Rueli’ (original) out of ‘Cigaretta’ 408, a particularly noble, short and ‘dry’ horse with much temperament and action and for that reason selected to be the future reproductor, and
‘Apollo’, gray, from ‘Rueli’-‘Ragusa’ 588, also very noble, a bit stronger, with very beautiful, small head.
Among the mentioned teams, special attention should be directed towards the horses in the front of the gray four-in-hand. The two young ‘Rueli’ stallions did inherit their father’s strong build and excellent legs, reminding already somewhat of the Lipizzaner type. (While inspecting the teams, I could not overcome my quiet regret that the horses were driven in Kumt harnesses and not the Sielen harness that would be much more advantageous for their conformation, highlighting neck, chest, and withers.)
For those who have seen the stallions in Slawuta, it becomes obvious what the breeding goal of the stud is. The main objective is the conservation of the initial original type of the desert horse, thereby putting emphasis on intricacy and dryness without being deterred by the whims of fads, financial success, or similar circumstances that often seem to influence horse breeding.
As pertains to the lesser height, Slawuta believes that the authentic, typical Arabian could only be small. “Because,” in the words of Colonel Trippenbach, “the small Arabian as regenerator always tends to retain its value when it comes to bringing new blood and improving deficiencies. You will see elsewhere that you can breed tall horses from the small Arabian and can breed him to be tall as well. However, a tall Arabian is not an Arabian anymore because he will lose his type in the end and turn into an English. This is the way the English raised their full-blood. The English, however, is definitely less suited for our conditions as compared to the Arabian.”
Count Wladyslaw Sanguszko has a different opinion on the English full-blood but arrives at the same conclusion. He writes: “There are many among us who declare that the English full-blood horses descended from the Arabians and that they are not crossed at all. They also claim that they are obviously better than the Arabians to build and improve the breed because they have the same blood as the Arabians while being taller, better acclimated and better adjusted to the European ‘trends’. If this were the case, meaning that the English horses were pure-blooded Arabians born in England, they could be equally suitable for the establishment of the breed or even outperform the Arabians. But the situation presents itself differently … We cannot see from the pedigrees of the time that Arabian mare would have been used. However, a Berber mare was mentioned which is just not the equivalent to Arabian, despite of being obviously related … I believe, this is clear evidence that there never was an Arabian nucleus herd imported to England … consequently, the English blood, though related, is something totally different than the Arabian.” I am including this passage to explain why the Counts Sanguszko do not adhere to modern breeding goals and stay away from the use of the English full-blood.
In any case, the breeding principles in Slawuta certainly stand up to criticism and remain justified when it comes to regenerators. This view has been shared by Schwarznecker in his “Pferdezucht” and supported there by S. v. Nathusius. “Due to the fact that the current direction generally focuses on the production of mass, the Oriental has a strong handicap. However, it should not be left unsaid that he does not deserve the elegant disregard with which he is looked down upon and which we have gotten used to. The Oriental is still unparalleled in achieving a light, agile riding horse. It is at least plausible that sooner or later singular breeding programs that got lost in extremes and consequently had abandoned all necessary harmony, will have to come back to the Oriental and seek help at this wellspring.”
The stallions in Chrestowka are not different from those in Slawuta, except that they are in part taller and stronger. The originals are additional evidence for the degree to which the exterior of Slawutans is identical with that of desert horses.
Chrestowka, the actual main site of the stud, is located in the estate district of Bialogrodka and is not far from the little town of Bialogrodka in a rather barren but typically Wolhynian setting. It is an estate of approximately 630 ha with a stud-farm as folwark at a distance of 2 kilometers. The folwark consists of the dwelling of the second stud manager, Mr. Berger, former k.k. Austrian military veterinarian, and furthermore the apartments of the stud caretakers and the large brood mare stable. The stable is simple and very practical in its organization. One end contains the pens for the sires, followed by: the stable for utility horses, among them usually some non-pregnant mares, furthermore open pens for 15-20 brood mares respectively, who are allowed to move freely and are only attached for feeding, and finally approximately 30 pens for mares in their late pregnancy and mares right after foaling. Every compartment includes an attached, enclosed, spacious paddock as exercise space mainly in the winter. A large watering area with a well extends along the paddocks. This allows to conveniently bring the horses to the water in batches. Behind the watering area, there are the extensive paddocks. Chrestowka offers no natural grasslands and therefore ‘pasture‘ is mainly for exercise and the diet needs to be supplemented with hay from clover and Timothygrass and oats.
At the time of my visit, the inventory was as follows:
Brood mares 132
Young mares 56
Young stallions 51
Suckling and weaned foals 58
Test stallions and riding horses 3
Total 310 heads.
The stud-farm was housing the sires, all mares that had foaled this year, whereby 29, so about half of them, still lactated. Furthermore, there was a number of mares in their late pregnancy and non-pregnant mares which were used as carriage horses, in all approximately 80 heads, including all foals of the current year. The remaining brood mares together with a group of the young mares were housed on the estate for economic reasons the stud is bound to. The rest of the young mares, mainly two- and three-year olds were on the folwark Tarnowiec, the male foals on the folwark Dworzec.
The sires that were also kindly presented to me were as follows:
- ‘Rueli’, white, original, coming from Cairo and purchased in Odessa in 1896. The old stallion is more than 20 years old and has grown somewhat phlegmatic over the years. However, he still makes a splendid figure when moving. He is very strong and has a compact build. Mr. Bojanowski even is of the opinion that his type does not indicate sufficiently that he carries the high blood of the ‘Selglavi’. However, he inherits well and is considered the best father animal.
‘Rueli’ is flanked by his two sons, the gray stallions
- ‘Wapiti’ six years old and
- ‘Yankee’ five years old. They are both excellent stallions of approximately 155 cm height and impressive exterieur.
The result of internal breeding is
- the 12-year-old gray stallion ‘Lenkoran’ from Handzar’ (original) who lags somewhat in comparison to the aforementioned. By contrast,
- the six-year-old, brown ‘Zwyciezca’, also raised at the stud from ‘Antar’ (original), however, exceeds all others in terms of exterieur, height, and habitus while exhibiting a very correct and tight build.
Furthermore, there are the originals:
- ‘Arslan’, gray, original from the strain ‘Koheilan’, approximately 17 years old and 150 cm tall, a particularly noble, beautiful, and typical horse, while also an excellent reproducer whose products rank among the best, next to those of ‘Rueli’. Mr. Bojanowski describes him as follows: “It has been a long time since Slawuta has had a stallion of such noble blood; wonderful profile and beautiful marking and action; a true image of a dry, typical oriental son of the desert …” Colonel Trippenbach added that it took much time and effort for ‘Arslan’ to learn how to trot, which is also proof of his pure pedigree, since Beduins are known to only ride walk and gallop. Unfortunately, ‘Arslan’ is somewhat worn-out due to his overproportional intensity.
- ‘Dzejlan’, gray, original, 20 years old, similar to ‘Rueli’ in type, also very compact build. Mr. v. Bojanowski criticizes a conformation that is possibly too heavy and a neck that is too short and thick.
- ‘Ilderim’, chestnut, original, 10 years old, a small (barely 145 cm), round, and broad stallion with otherwise flawless foundation, excellent back and croup, and exceptional temperament. He needed to be led by two handlers. In particular, under a rider his figure does not remind of his lesser height.
- ‘Kibiszan’, grey, original, also a noble and beautiful stallion that, however, does not measure up to ‘Ilderim’s’ fire or the height of the other stallions.
‘Arslan’, ‘Dzejlan’, and ‘Ilderim’ have been purchased by Colonel Trippenbach in Constantinople in the year 1900. ‘Kibiszan’ was purchased in Odessa by the Count himself.
The last one of the sires is finally 10. ‘Gabdon-Effendi’, an older, strong stallion bred on-site from ‘Attyk’. He has excellent bone structure.
Every few years, the acquisition of originals ensures the influx of new blood and the last such event was in 1900. Mr. Trippenbach is already preparing for a new expedition to Constantinople planned for next spring. There, the horses that are assembled by agents on orders of the French embassy are available in an abundant selection. According to Mr. Trippenbach, the Arabs do not issue pedigrees which for example Colonel Czapski is able to recite in great detail. Each one of them knows the pedigrees of the different families by heart. Rather, every horse carries a sort of amulet signifying its pedigree around the neck. This is a pouch with three compartments, made from black leather and stitched with camel hair and silver thread. A small piece of bone of an ancestor is sewed into the middle compartment (picture 2). These ‘pedigrees’ have a specific significance and are painstakingly adhered to.
The dry type of Slawuta is most noticeable among the mares and especially the older ones which have a quite significant proportion of the brood mare population. They mostly descend from ‘Antar’ and ‘Jussuf’. Moreover, the first-class mares in particular, come from a number of other sires as well as originals like ‘Semchan’ and ‘Abu-Argub’ or stallions from the own breeding program. In this latter category, ‘Achmet-Ejub’ and ‘Rymnik’ are notable but both come from originals. Consequently, it can be stated that all horses at the stud are either direct descendants of original sires and if not, they descend from originals mostly going back two generations, rarely three generations. ‘Jussuf’ who was purchased in Babolna in 1888 was not successful. For Slawuta, he is too long and not dry enough, so has too little type. He was not able to completely balance out the typical shortness and compactness of Arabians in his progeny in Chrestowka and a great proportion of his products stands out negatively due to a weaker back and a deficiency in type as compared to the rest.
Picture 2. Arabian pedigree – half of its natural size.
For this reason, ‘Jussuf’ has been banned from the stud. I have seen him on the folwark of Szczurowe near Zaskaw where in his old days – he must be around 25 years old now – he covers utility mares. The young brood mares mainly descend from ‘Rueli’ and others from sires that are the product of the own breeding program, like ‘Olgierd’, ‘Musafer-Pasza’, and others. The young animals are in large part the progeny of currently active sires; the best among them are as mentioned before, the ‘Rueli’ and ‘Arslan’ foals. Additionally, I have noticed a few very pleasing products from ‘Ilderim’, as well as ‘Dzejlan’. The older sires ‘Olgierd’ and ‘Musafer-Pasza’ also seem to have left a good progeny.
Considering such abundance of material, it is impossible for me to go into the specific discussion of singular animals, and a simple listing of names would not fulfill any purpose. I would only like to mention a few mares that merit to be highlighted due to their typical build, like for example the two 14-year-old gray mares from ‘Rymnik’: ‘Lizbona’ and ‘Lektyka’. The latter is a little overbuilt and the only one among the older mares that stands out in that respect. This aspect is more common in young mares and specifically caused by low withers and not so much by a high croup; Over time, however, the withers keep developing and the discrepancy disappears. Consequently, the older animals only occasionally are overbuilt. Notable ‘Antar’ mares include the 12-year-old, dark-brown ‘Norwegia’, a noble horse of very harmonious and compact build, and the gray ‘Nemesis’ of the same age. ‘Achmet-Ejub’ mares finally include the 12-year-old, brown, highly noble but only 146 cm tall ‘Natura’ and the 13-year-old ‘Melpomena’, a flea-bitten gray out of ‘Trychina’ from ‘Hadzi-Achmet’ (Picture 3). ‘Melpomena’ is basically the gem of the stud; I can therefore refrain from a more detailed description and only need to mention that she has repeatedly fetched the highest distinctions at exhibitions, including the gold medal at the 1900 World Exhibition in Paris. The Parisian ‘Revue Hippique’ in its issue 355 of the same year, describes ‘Melpomena’ and the repeatedly mentioned ‘Olgierd’ exhibited alongside her as follows:
“The six-year-old dappled gray stallion ‘Olgierd’ and the gray mare ‘Melpomena’ from the stud farm of Count Roman Sanguszko are both of pure Arabian blood. ‘Olgierd’ from ‘Antar’ and ‘Brumana’ from the land of Nedji; ‘Melpomena’ from ‘Achmet-Ejub’ and ‘Trychina’ of pure Seglavi race. The beautiful type and nice movement of these horses certify the purity of their Oriental origin. Their vigorously muscled extremities are extraordinarily dry.”
Picture 3: Stud Chrestowka (Slawuta). Flea-bitten gray mare ‘Malpomena’ from ‘Achmet-Ejub’ – ‘Trychina’ with foal from ‘Arslan’.
‘Melpomena’ is not the only prize-winning mare, however, in comparison, the others drastically recede to the background. When I met her, ‘Melpomena’ had a roughly three-months-old foal by ‘Arslan’. I can’t help to not that there is hardly anything more charming than such a small Arabian foal. While the foals of other noble breeds almost consistently display a flaw in their build, especially when it comes to bone conformation, the Arabians are so well-developed and well-built from an early age, that it is a pleasure to watch those little delicate critters.
The small number of suckling and weaning foals is striking. This is possibly due to the local climate conditions that seemingly are causing some confusion. These factors come to bear at varying degrees each year and the blame is attributed in part to the soil and in part to the water. As a consequence, foal paralysis horribly ravages the young generation of the stud, in addition to miscarriages, etc. The failed harvest of last year exacerbated this with a propensity for bone fractures. I have to mention here that the oats offered to the weanling foals by the economy at the time of my visit did not seem to be of good quality. In the opinion of important veterinarians, like for example Prof. Dr. Casper-Breslau, such an epidemic can only be attributed to infectious germs that are manifest within the building.
The rearing is done as follows:
The foals suckle 4-7 months, depending on the mother’s physical condition; After weaning, they receive oats ad libitum during their first year and then the oat in their rations is successively diminished until at the end of their third year of life, they are not given any oats anymore. Instead, their ration consists mainly of hay, next to straw from oat and barley, and pasture in the summer. At the time of completing the third year on these rations, they are put on full oat regimens again. This reflects the objective to achieve a very dry, clearly defined type while refraining from developing any mass which explains the lesser height of the animals; As mentioned, with the exception of the sires, 150 cm is the highest measure for horses on the stud. There happen to be some that are taller, however, they are exactly the ones that are less noble and racy, which is a phenomenon I will have the opportunity to discuss later. One just had to endorse the standpoint of the stud management. However, it almost seemed to me as if these best efforts were too much. On the other hand, I decisively reject that the stud is vulnerable to degeneration, as argued by critics of a more pessimistic point of view. At least, I have not noticed any such indications. However, I felt that too much material is being kept, which is an observation I also alluded to in my discussion of the stallions. I learned that this may be due to the fact, that a border restriction was imposed as a result of the war which did not allow for surplus to clear out. Usually, at least 30 horses per year would be sold privately at a price that seems very modest under our circumstances. A very good surplus mare could likely be purchased for 300 Rubel. The sale of stallions out of the Marstall is not included here because it is difficult to establish an average norm under the described conditions. Under certain circumstances, the stallions are also leased.
A significant disadvantage of the stud operation would be in my opinion the lack of any performance testing of the stud products. The horses are categorized when they are four years old. The stallions go to the Marstall in Slawuta, the mares are recruited as brood mares or put up for sale. They receive the brood mare number of the stud register burned on the left shoulder and the stud brand (Picture 4) on the left buttock. The stallions receive the brand on the left saddle side. Similar like military horses, the years have their own first letters, and the letter of the year 1905 is E.
Thus, the recruitment of brood mares is only based on physical conformation and particularly on the pedigree. This is a breeding principle of Slawuta which Count Wladyslaw Sanguszko also adheres to. He is a fervent supporter of the theory of the persistence of type in the most extreme sense which he expresses in the already mentioned brochure, revealing his guiding principle as a breeder when he writes the following:
“The owner of a stud should not be blinded by the beauty and individual assets of a stud that he intends to use; he should primarily consider his parents because one can be sure that the good and bad paternal characteristics will be less evident in the offspring than the qualities and pedigree of the grandparents and even great-grandparents. There is a reason why the English and the Arabians have certificates for the descent of their entire horse strain; this is not about vanity but rather an inevitable requirement …
At this point, I will take the freedom to add two striking examples of proof for what I have said about crossing breeds and the individual qualities of a stallion.
Many horse enthusiasts have seen or heard about two stallions that used to live side by side in a stable in Wolhynia. One of them, black without a marking, was called ‘Szumka’ and the other, ‘Zboj’ was a white stallion. Although, they did not resemble each other at all, they were similar in one respect: Nobody was able to find any flaw in either of them or could criticize their virtues.
I have never seen a stronger or more capable horse than ‘Zboj’. ‘Szumka’ is to this day the most beautiful horse that I have had the chance to lay my eyes on in all of my long life. ‘Szumka’s’ father was the son of an Arabian and his mother was an English mare. He was born at my grandfather’s in Slawuta. The pedigree of ‘Zboj’ was completely unknown, as the Turk who was riding him fell in battle. The horse was captured by Russian soldiers. For experts, however, it was obvious that he was a Turkoman horse of the best strain, born in Asia Minor. Both stallions were used in the same stud and despite of pairing them with the most excellent mares, none of their progeny was successful. The entire progeny by ‘Zboj’ had to be eliminated without exception. ‘Szumka’ whose pedigree was more in line with the stud’s objectives, produced hardly any mares that were selected for use at the stud.
If I wanted to support my argument with additional evidence, I could list any random ugly, short, and badly composed stallion that left a good progeny only because he came from good and noble parents.”
This excerpt gives insight that efforts were made at that time already to include Anglo-Arabians that will be discussed more in the following sections. They were probably part of breeding programs to increase figures but were not successful as father horses.
Antoniny conveys a completely different impression than Slawuta, judging from a first, superficial view; it feels as if the owners’ individuality would be reflected in the external look of their residences. On the one hand, Slawuta is steeped in a certain simple, patriarchal dignity that is free of any luxury which, however, I do not want to be understood as synonymous with backwardness. Antoniny, on the other hand, is a truly modern estate that is equipped with all imaginable chic and comfort. It is of exemplary neatness and is managed to the smallest detail. The long, extensive square leading up to the palace driveway almost gives the impression of a mansion suburb of a modern capital city. It is lined with tasteful buildings erected in the old-German style, surrounded by abundant trees and is housing the estate management and officers. Among the buildings are also quarters for outsiders who are provided room and board at the expense of the estate when they bring their matters to the estate management. The palace courtyard with the impressive and luxurious palace is located at the end of the square. Next to it is a splendid park and the even more impressive Marstall with a crowning spire. The owner of Antoniny, Count Josef Potocki, is a widely recognized personality. He is a passionate sportsman and hunter, and he keeps a stable of approximately 90 riding and carriage horses which is an attraction for even the most pampered connoisseur. The riding horses that are mainly kept for the Parforce hunts taking place over the course of several weeks every fall, were represented in much larger numbers previously. For some time now, most of the invited guests bring their own horses for this event and therefore “this number is sufficient”. A pack of hounds is also kept for the hunt, or rather two: a larger pack of beagles for big game and deer, and a smaller Harrier pack for small game, both including approximately 20 pens.
The estate of Antoniny is somewhat smaller than Slawuta, approximately 55,000 hectares in size, including 30,000 hectares of forest, 5,000 hectares of pasture, 1,250 hectares of water bodies, 3,000 hectares of paths and unproductive land. In all, there are 41 farms, 13 of which are under lease. The estate consists of four estate complexes: Antoniny, Szepetowka, Piszczow, and Smoldyrow which are very sprawling. While Szepetowka is the adjacent station to Slawuta on the south-west railway, Antoniny is located near Staro-Konstantynow. The landscape still has more of a steppe-like character, the breaks in the terrain are much deeper and steeper and the terrain is also hillier. The soil around Antoniny is pure Podolian black earth, mildly humous and well-draining. Consequently, the production system is more intensive. Count Potocki owns four sugar refineries, one of them near Zaslaw in the heart of Slawuta. Next to the significant number of mills, other agricultural commercial productions that the estate owns are three distilleries, two peat presses that supply a sugar refinery and a distillery with heating material, a brickyard, stone (granite) and limestone quarries. Moreover, there is extensive pond-farming and aquaculture.
Livestock production is handled in a similar fashion as it is done in Slawuta. Cattle breeding is not worthwhile and therefore cattle is supplied by the southern gouvernements. By contrast, there is extensive breeding of Negretti sheep and horses.
Picture 5: Stud Antoniny. Arabian and Anglo-Arabian mares in the paddock.
Dominant among the utility horses is a fast-growing and sinewy English and Arabian half-blood; The formerly pursued breeding of Percheron horses has been abandoned.
The impression of the entire estate is also reflected in the impression the stud conveys. The entire stud farm and associated buildings have comfortable amenities outside and inside. All horses are in excellent feed condition. Also, they are in average taller than the horses in Slawuta, especially looking at the Anglo-Arabians that, however, fall very heterogeneous in that respect. Antoniny has three breeding objectives:
- The old Arabian pedigree breeding, done with mares of the Slawuta strain and original stallions, respectively Arabian stallions from the own breeding program,
- An English full-blood breeding program, involving imported full-blood stallions and full-blood mares that also had been imported or been raised at the stud as well as English and Irish Hunter mares,
- An Anglo-Arabian breeding program, consisting of crossing the previously mentioned English full-blood stallions with Arabian mares.
Accordingly, the brood mare inventory is as follows:
33 Arabian mares,
12 English mares
20 Anglo-Arabian mares.
At the time of my visit, in addition to 32 suckling and weaning foals, the offspring was composed of:
34 yearlings of which there were:
5 English, 19 Arabians, 10 Anglo-Arabians,
27 two-year-olds of which there were:
18 Arabians, 9 Anglo-Arabians,
20 three-year-olds of which there were:
11 Arabians, 9 Anglo-Arabians.
81 Total: 5 English, 48 Arabians, 28 Anglo-Arabians.
Among them are 38 young stallions, 37 young mares, and 6 geldings.
The English are only represented as yearlings and this has to do with the fact that they are sold in their second year to officers or racing stable owners. Count Potocki used to run a racing stable himself but has moved away from it for reasons that do not need to be discussed here. He adopted the most widely used method of selling off the yearlings. In the case that a mare was successful as a racing horse, the stud buys her back.
The main sires are the following:
- English full-blood stallion “Marshall-Saxe”, born 1892 in England, from “Newminster” out of “Beryl”, a mighty, deep stallion, more than 170 cm tall, with strong back and robust bone structure. His somewhat heavy head gives away his descent from “Stockwell”; a very good but unfortunately not very prolific reproducer; among the young one- to three-year-olds, only five were his progeny which nevertheless did him justice.
- Full-blood stallion “Hulton”, black stallion born 1891 from “Galopin” out of “Intruder” from “Isonomy”, not as tall but more streamlined than the aforementioned, very correct and harmonious build, pleasant appearance, very good sire; the stud has approximately 24 of his progeny that clearly are recognizable; I have to add that I liked his progeny better than any of the other English sires’.
- Full-blood stallion “Firmament”, brown, born 1899 from “Le Sancy” out of “Queen of Pearls”, not as tall and massive as “Marshall-Saxe”, but in no way inferior when it comes to depth and bone strength, active at the stud for a short time yet, however, his products of which there are about ten are very promising.
- Full-blood stallion “Sand-Box”, brown, from “Matchbox” out of “Gekauft” from “Buccaneer”, likewise a high-quality, tall stallion, at the stud only since the spring of 1905 and consequently still an unknown entity.
The Arabian sire “Sultan” is standing in the same stable. He was purchased in Constantinople in 1895 and is an original from Bagdad descending from “Seglavi” out of “Hemdani-Jemri”. The golden chestnut stallion with blaze and marking naturally appears very small and unspectacular next to his English comrades. He is, however, an exceptionally beautiful, typical and broad horse with compact build and strong bone. At the same time, he is also an excellent reproducer with approximately 40 progeny in the current group of foals; My only concern was that his feed condition seemed too plentiful which impacted the profile of his otherwise wonderfully built neck.
Upon review of this list of father animals with respect to their pedigree, and considering that they all can show good racing performances – because Count Potocki’s imported Arabians, especially those from India, had usually been racing – one comes instinctively to the conclusion that given this stallion material and corresponding brood mare inventory, truly exceptional results can be achieved.
The herd of Arabian mares is not as balanced as the one in Slawuta, although, a similar homogenous type by no means can be denied. The mares mostly descend from the originals “Obejan” and “Faraon” as well as the locally bred “Alikar” and “Priam” from “Obejan”-“Preciosa”, the younger ones from “Sultan”; the smaller type of Slawuta is best reflected in the “Obejan” mares among which six fleabitten grays caught my eye, with the mare “Legenda” ranking top. The others and especially the younger and youngest years are taller and bulkier due to more intensive feeding; As compared to Slawuta, the difference in the rearing program in Antoniny lies primarily in a 5-6 pounds of oat serving that is continued for foals in their second and third year.
It seems that this difference in nutrition as practiced in Antoniny is the reason why the more vigorously growing animals keep their type and fine physiology, while larger quantities of roughage as given in Slawuta in the second and third year can only be well exploited by less delicately built organisms. The chestnut mares “Pilawa” with her excellent foal from “Marshall-Saxe” and “Kalga” from “Faraon” should be highlighted. The equivalent for Slawuta’s “Melpomena” was for Antoniny the dark-brown mare “Arabella” from “Faraon” out of “Preciosa” from “Jamri” (original), which among other recognitions received the gold medal in Petersburg in 1893. She drew so much attention there that she was acquired for the Imperial Marstall to serve as the riding horse of the Russian Empress. The mare then came back to the stud. Another horse from the Antoniny breeding program entering the Imperial Marstall was the grey stallion “Makbet” from “Zarif”-“Zenobja”. He was ridden by Emperor Nicholas himself.
At last, an original mare can be seen at Antoniny which is a rarity in these times because of the export ban of Arabian mares from the Ottoman Empire that has been in place for some time.
Imported in 1897, the white Seglavi mare “Koheilanka” is a beautiful horse that is able to captivate every layperson or Arabian skeptic with its conformation; To this day, however, she has entirely failed as a brood mare; in five instances, her progeny was miscarried or stillborn or the very young foal succumbed to disease.
The Anglo-Arabian mares are not much different from the Arabians because the Arabian blood dominates and the Anglo-Arabians vary greatly in size which I will discuss later. Special mention deserves the brown mare “Faustina” with a robust foal from “Le Firmament” She is a very sleek horse and an excellent brood mare.
While some Anglo-Arabians are similar to the Arabian type in size, they do in average exceed the Arabian. Arabians do rarely reach a height of 160 cm, whereas Anglo-Arabians do often exceed it.
Concerning the pairing fundamentals, Anglo-Arabian mares are always bred with English full-bloods. Depending on size and constitution, smaller Arabian mares are bred with full-bloods, the taller ones with Arabians.
Before the horses are recruited to the ranks of brood mares, they are subjected to rigorous performance testing as riding or carriage horses. This is a characteristic difference to Slawuta and there are testing opportunities at the Count’s Marstall. As mentioned before, the Marstall is an attraction in terms of its furbishing as well as the material it houses. It consists of two sections that are separated by a spacious pavilion under the tower. The pavilion which is in part lounge and part museum, is lavishly furnished and decorated with paintings from the stud’s history; The table in the center displays a rider figurine of Count Eustachy Sanguszko on “Szumka”; The walls are decorated with old Turkish, Polish, and other saddles and bridles, Russian, Hungarian, and other harnesses. Every free space holds rows from floor to ceiling of bare snaffles, double bridles and stirrups, saddles, horsewhips, etc. in reserve. This all gives such a glamorous, yet such quaint impression that detractors claim, whoever is supposed to get an ordinary welcome, is received at the palace but festive receptions take place at the stable. The Marstall is headed by an Englishman; The local breeding program faces the challenge and difficult task to compete against imported foreign material which is on one hand full-bloods, Hunters, and Irish on Parforce hunts behind dogs, and on the other Americans in harness. The stud director, Mr. v. Sokolnicki, who kindly gave me insight into all the details of his domain of responsibility, proudly assured in our conversation that the Arabians and Anglo-Arabians absolutely meet the imposed requirements and are by no means inferior than the strangers, especially when it comes to jump performance.
Parforce hunts usually take place in September and October, when Antoniny welcomes a great number of guests from the upper ten thousand, among them also Grand Dukes and ladies who participate; In parts, the terrain is very contoured, there are only ditches serving as obstacles, deep and wide, mostly with uneven banks and additionally reinforced with soil on one side, in order to make some serious obstacles. The production system of the local Ruthenian farming community allows for more leverage in managing the fields. In contrast to the modern intensive production system adopted in latifundia, they still adhere to the old open-field system, the community three field rotation. Since there is almost no root vegetable being cultivated, the fields lie unplanted during the mentioned time and hence are at the disposal of the hunting party for appropriate compensation, of course.
The animals used as carriage horses, counting 44, have been submitted to appropriate training over distances to both “closest” railway stations, which is Szepetowka on the south-west railway (55 Werst = 60 km) and Czarny Ostrow on the Podwoloczyska-Odessa line (40 Werst = 43 km). In this group of horses, a majestic five-in-hand of dark-brown Arabian stallions stood out which are the “Abu-Argub” sons: “Remus”, “Szafir”, “Belisar”, “Athos”, and “Sospiro”. It should be noted, however, that these are carriage horses for upscale equipment; For “ordinary” tasks, like picking up guests on soaked paths (this part of the country is known for the lack of country roads), luggage transport and other carts, there are several dozens of less noble horses that in part had been purchased on fairs. Mr. v. Bojanowski aptly characterizes them as “a very interesting reflection of the utility horses bred in the Southern gouvernements and in Russia.” The carriage fleet of Antoniny consists of approximately 170 vehicles of any kind and is a veritable exhibit of equipment.
The number of riding horses is 42; 2/3 of the entire Marstall inventory are bred on-site, among them 17 Anglo-Arabians; Especially appealing products are the chestnut mares “Faschoda” and “Goplana”, 162 and 156 cm tall, both are daughters of “Melbourne”; The first-mentioned is the riding horse of Countess Potocka; Among the Arabians, the gray mare “Aktorka” and the brown mare “Skiba” stand out, 156 and 158 cm tall. I will also come back to these horses later.
The stud director criticized an unsatisfactory aspect in performance testing, namely that he is unable to get such good mares like for example “Faschoda” and “Goplana” to the stud for breeding purposes because they seem indispensable as riding horses.
The 13 imported Hunters, mostly mares, appear almost heavy next to the Arabians and Anglo-Arabians with pleasant conformation; They are supposed to be bred also after completing their service as hunting horses. I was told, however, that breeding them has not been successful. It was hard to get them pregnant and if 30 % of them stayed pregnant, this would be a high number. Noble Hunter and full-blood mares are used in a special full-blood breeding program. As I mentioned before, yearlings are sold and mares are bought back after they have made a name for themselves on Russian and Austrian racetracks. The following returned to the stud: the “Kadi” daughters “Roxana” and “Esmeralda”, and the “Red-Rover” mares “Satanella” and “Blyskawica”.
Among the English yearlings, best were the stallion “Satan” and the mare “Metamorfoza”, both from “Hulton”. In the group of Arabian 1-3-year-old foals, the dominant blood is “Sultan” in number and quality, in the Anglo-Arabians it is “Hulton”. The female foals are housed on the stud farm, the young stallions 1-2 years old, in all 29, on the folwark Zielona, and the 3-year-old stallions and geldings are ready for sale on the folwark Zakrynicze.
Standing out in the “Sultan” progeny are three chestnut yearling stallions out of “Arabella”, “Alpuhara”, and “Parsala”. Furthermore, there are two 2-year-olds, chestnut and brown, out of “Parsala” and “Luba”. “Hulton” products include a 2-year-old stallion and a 3-year-old mare out of “Faustina” and two mighty, Hunter-like 3-year-old geldings of approximately 165 cm height. Other sires have left quite impressive progeny as well, like for example “Faraon” in form of the 3-year-old brown mare “Podolanka” out of “Preciosa”, consequently sister of the famous “Arabella”. Other examples are “Zarif” and “Tybet”: Progeny of the latter includes a 3-year-old brown Arabian stallion of approximately 160 cm height and of such strong and bony build that he might come close to Hunter-type. Another “Tybet” stallion of the same age out of “Kalga”, dark-brown, at the same height but less mass, showed more sleekness and nobility. The most successful product of “Marshall-Saxe” was a 3-year-old brown mare out of “Fialka”.
The foals at Antoniny display larger differences between the different years than those in Slawuta; the 2-year-olds already have a height measurement of 150-152 cm; The 3- and 4-year-old reach heights of 160 cm, the Anglo-Arabians up to 165 cm, and of course not all of them. Setbacks to the earlier type do occur.
At the completion of the fourth year, they are classified similarly as in Slawuta; Stallions that do not qualify for breeding, namely the Anglo-Arabians, are castrated. The horses also receive a brand that has been introduced a short time ago (Picture 6).
The noble pedigree combined with a pleasant exterior allows to achieve prices of 800, even up to 1,000 Rubel for utility horse products of the stud, which is exceptional for the local circumstances. The horse sale brings a yearly income of 20,000 Rubel for the stud despite of supplying the Marstall which according to the aforementioned does set high standards in quality and quantity. This makes the breeding direction of Antoniny decisively more lucrative in financial terms.
The breeding goal in Antoniny is thus to mold the domestic Arabian into a utility horse that meets the modern requirements. The most prevalent criticism about the Arabian’s shortcomings in size and mass should be remedied with an abundant diet where the predisposition for a more voluminous development is already existent or should be balanced with crossing in full-blood where this disposition is still amiss. The breeding of Anglo-Arabians is not done because Anglo-Arabians do not have a constant type. Only mares are kept and bred with full-bloods to consequently have products that increasingly approach the English full-blood, as long as the constancy of the oriental blood does allow this. The most efficient approach to obtaining this goal would be to transform the entire stud into an Anglo-Arabian and over time into an English stud. However, such a process would find resistance due to the well-understood local demand for Arabian blood; For this reason, the Arabian main stud is kept in its purity of original blood, which makes the constant supply of Arabian blood the more a topic of discussions. On the other hand, should possibly ‘straying into extremes’ occur, a regeneration would be feasible at any time. For this reason, an increasing number of Arabian mares is kept, in part serving in the pure Arabian and part in the Anglo-Arabian breeding programs.
It might not be an easy task to oversee a multi-faceted breeding enterprise in all its details and to maintain it focused on a certain direction. However, the expert leadership and first-grade material vouch for the continued high standard over the near future. Despite of a push for modernization, breeding decisions are based on strict performance testing but not made exclusively based on rigid data. This fact guarantees that for the time being no inferior material can find its way into the stud.
Gumniska is a small but very interesting stud that is exceptional when it comes to the material. It belongs to the estate by the same name near Tarnow in Galicia, an hour east of Krakow by train. The estate comprises 10,000 hectares and was in possession of Count Eustachy Sanguszko who died a few years ago and was the former Governor of Galicia and brother of the lord of Slawuta; Gumniska is currently managed by his widow as the legal guardian for her only five-year-old son who will also be the future heir to Slawuta since Count Roman has no children. This is an unfortunate situation for the stud in the sense that the previously described studs are owned by true horse enthusiasts who are willing to spend money on their equestrian passion, while the stud Gumniska has to deal with difficulties that could have caused its total demise if it were not for the carriage stable. More precisely, the carriage stable is in constant need of 8-9 pairs of horses at the owners’ disposal and needs to recruit from the ranks of brood mares and young mares. The remainder comes from the sale of surplus material, primarily stallions, Remount breeding on the folwarks charging a fixed breeding fee, etc.
Picture 7: Stud Gumniska. Mares on pasture.
In fact, the stud is a pépinière with a core of 15 brood mares of the noblest blood. Every year, only 8 of them are bred, while the others serve as carriage horses. As a result, every mare carries a foal about every other year. On the 8 folwarks, there are approximately 60 brood mares among the working horses, among them pure-blooded Arabians that unfortunately are not listed in the stud registry but have to earn their keep through hard work because of economic considerations and a lack of space. The nobler foals are in part used as service horses for the management personnel and in part they are sold as higher-priced Remounts or officer horses. Maintaining the stud at this level can mainly be attributed to the restless activity and care exhibited by the current stud manager, Mr. Fröhlich. The stud Gumniska is a branch of Slawuta and exists on its own since the year 1835, when the breeding registers of the stud begin. At this time, it was owned by Count Wladyslaw, the father of both brothers Roman and Eustachy, and constantly supplied with blood from Slawuta. He frequently sent the reproductors back and forth. He often brought them along when he visited Galicia, so he could take them back when returning home. This explains that the breeding registers up to the 1870ies list different names of sires almost every year and sometimes breeding only one or two mares. The number of mares was constantly 9-15, at most 29 mares.
The more important names include the following:
In the year 1835, nine mares were serviced by seven stallions and among them “Splendor” and “Kanaris” (originals), moreover the black “Szumka”, “Elruch”, “Seraskier” and others; the number of mares on the folwarks was approximately 200; in the year 1838: “Obejan” from Szumka and “Srebrny”; in the year 1840: “Dzieyran” and “Dzielfa” (originals), moreover the gray stallion “Nezdy” and a number of others.
In the year 1846, “Dzieyran”, “Nezdy”, “Znicz”, and “Strus” bred 25 mares.
In the year 1852, “Bayraktar” bred 5 mares, 4 other stallions bred 24 mares.
In the year 1855, “Giaur” bred next to 4 other sires.
In the year 1857, “Dzimbulat” and “Zawisza” were used.
In the year 1860, “Abu-Argub” bred 5 of 29 mares.
In the year 1863, “Algier” (original) bred 4 of 12 mares.
In the year 1866, “Hetman” bred 6 of 9 mares.
In the year1867, “Abuheil” bred 2 of 10 mares.
In the year 1868, “Abdelkader” bred 2 of 11 mares.
In the year 1872, “Dubani” bred 3 of 7 mares
In the year 1874, the latter bred 7 of 8 mares; “Halim” (original) bred 1 mare.
“Halim” is the first one that the current branch goes back to; “Halim” was imported by Count Eustachy from the Orient in 1874, next to the original mares “Elsissa” I, II, and III. He had his debut with one mare in 1874 and bred until 1880. In this year, he sired the mare “Wirginia” out of “Elsissa I” that recently had to be put down because of old age, and the still living dark chestnut mare with marking, “Dame-de-Coeur” out of “Warszawianka” (original). Despite of her old age, “Dame-de-Coeur” produces still very beautiful foals and a significant part of the stud goes back to her.
In the year 1881, the gray mare “Sahara” was born, sired by the Radautzer “Dahoman” out of “Nizza”. Likewise, she is still living.
In 1885, “Sultan”, own breeding product from “Halim”-“Elsissa”, hence original parents, was used, producing the gray mare “Alma” out of “Elsissa III” and the gray mare “Lucia” out of “Titine”. Finally, the gray mare “Schipka I” from “Rawelin” (Slawuta) out of “Dame-de-Coeur” was born in the year 1887.
Hence, up to the year 1887, exclusively Arabian pure breeding was practiced based on Slawuta and including ample influx of original blood. At this time, however, the owner of Gumniska was also afflicted with the prevalent addiction to aim for more mass and more growth. With the goal of achieving a taller horse, the path chosen and guided by the standards in these fast-paced times was not methodical breeding as it is part of tradition in Antoniny, but the much faster and more comfortable method of crossing. The closest thing was naturally crossing with English blood; and therefore, the English “Peterhof” was purchased from Count Pless. I was not able to find out the pedigree of “Peterhof” because he was sold to Count Plater in Russian Poland with his pedigree in 1894 after seven years of activity. According to what I have heard about him, his pedigree seems to have been not entirely flawless. His progeny was not convincing either; 31 of his 39 products were sold; the remaining 8 are only used as carriage horses and excluded from the breeding program. Although they are very good utility horses, taller and stronger than the Arabians (up to 158, 159 cm tall) and also well-built due to the persistence of the Arabian blood, their form lacks the sleekness that is seen in Anglo-Arabians in Antoniny bred from first-class full-bloods. Though not unattractive, their heads are heavier, especially in the visceral part; Often the back is not sufficiently strong and the gait is not as dry and confident as compared to that of Arabians. However, it should be considered that these horses almost without exception are older and are being chased around a lot. This would lead to the fair assumption that it was not the worst material being kept.
In addition to “Peterhof”, the Arabians “Muradi” from “Halim” and the dark-brown “Aghil-Aga”, son of the well-known Babolnaean original and bred in Slawuta, were used as sires at the same time. “Muradi” produced the chestnut mares with marking “Murada” and “Lysaczka”, born in 1890 and 1891, respectively. Both seem to have inherited a propensity for bow-leggedness from their father. “Aghil-Aga” left several good mares, like in 1891 the gray mare “Krymka” out of “Elsissa I”, 1892 from the same “Iskra”, gray, and later in 1898 “Alfa I”, brown, out of “Murada”, and two mares in the year 1902.
The current stud manager, Mr. Froehlich, a former k. k. cavalryman who served with the state studs for a long time, arrived at Gumniska in 1894. His first goal was to end the Anglo-Arabian breeding program and to return to the old breeding goal of the pure-blooded Arabian strain.
Picture 8: Left: Arabian stallion “Musafer-Pascha” from “Rymnik” out of “Rduta” (Slawuta).
Right: Arabian stallion “Kalif” from “Aghil-Aga out of “Schipka” I (Gumniska).
He eliminated the rest of the “Peterhof” progeny, with the exception of the already mentioned 8 and revived the old breeding program based on the remaining old mares, like the three “Elsissa” and “Virginia”, which in the meantime had to be put down for old age (“Elsissa I” was already 24 years old at the time), moreover the already mentioned “Dame-de-Coeur” and her daughter “Schipka I”, the two “Muradi” mares, and the “Aghil-Aga” mares which were “Iskra and “Larissa” out of “Elsissa I” and finally “Comtesse” from “Arabi-Pasza”. “Larissa” and “Comtesse” soon perished, unfortunately. They sustained bone fractures and severe injuries when escaping from the paddock and had to be shot. Concerning a reproductor, he turned to the old source again and in 1896 obtained a stallion from Slawuta, the six-year-old brown “Kleber” on loan. “Kleber” remained for one year and produced only two mares, the chestnut mare with marking “Zulejka” out of “Wirginia” and the brown mare “Rusalka” out of “Schipka”, the remainder were stallions which all were sold. Three of them (Aga, Czumak and Derwisz) were acquired by the Austrian government. “Kleber” was also very successful as a sire in the half-blood breeding program. The folwarks feature several very beautiful mares he sired.
Since “Kleber” was sent back to Slawuta in 1897, then went on to be sold to the Russian government, he was replaced again by a loan from Slawuta, the gray stallion “Muzafer-Pasza” from “Rymnik” out of “Reduta”. He only left behind the gray mare “Pojata”, born in 1899 out of “Sahara”; everything else were stallions. Two of them were sold to the Austrian government and two to Poland.
In 1901, “Muzafer-Pasza” was replaced by the dark-brown original “Abu-Argub”, also from Slawuta; He was active in Gumniska for two years, resulting in four stallions and seven mares that were altogether excellent representatives of their strain, with the exception of one stallion who did not conform and was sold at the age of three. The other stallions, two 2-year-olds and one yearling out of “Dame-de-Coeur” are all brown and very well-developed and promising. Looking at the mares, two are three years old, four are two years old and one is a yearling; they also have inherited the brown color of their father, with the exception of two of them.
“Abu-Argub” returned to Slawuta in 1903 and in his place Slawuta sent the light-brown “Sembat” from “Antar” (original) out of “Reduta”. He stayed for a year, impregnating all 8 mares he was matched with and left behind six stallions and two mares. All of these yearlings show very good conformation and a well-proportioned build. The exception might be the brown “Sembat V” out of the Muradi-mare “Lysaczka” who exhibits the hereditary bow-leggedness. “Abu-Argub” products also show good growth, since the tallest yearling stallion, “Sembat II”, a gray stallion out of “Iskra”, measures 146 cm withers height which compares to the height of adult 4-year-old stallins at Slawuta. “Sembat” was sold to the Austrian government in 1904.
The death of Count Eustachy seems to have brought a spontaneous change in relations with Slawuta. Although the successor of “Sembat” in Gumniska again descends from Slawuta, namely the F.-H. “Nizam” from “Achmet-Ejub” out of “Utopia”, he was not directly received from the main stud but rather was purchased by the Austrian government from Slawuta and transferred to Gumniska on loan as part of the Ärar lending program. “Nizam” is of strong build with a good foundation, taller than the average stallion at Slawuta; Alone, more depth would be desirable and his forehand, shoulder, and base of the neck are not quite as correct or impressive as in comparison is the case for “Aghil-Aga” or “Abu-Argub” stallions.
Additionally, the old “Aghil-Aga” was still an active sire up to the year 1902. He was sold to the Countess Czartoryska in Pelkin (Podolia) for 1,000 Kronen at the age of 23.
Currently, Gumniska still has two Aghil-Aga sons, the 5-year-old brown “Chocim” out of “Murada” and the 4-year-old dark-brown “Aghil-Aga III” out of “Sultanka”.
“Chokim” is a gorgeous, very compact stallion, 151 cm in height, with impressive forehand and exceptional back which allows him to effortlessly balance the 90 kg-heavy Mr. Fröhlich with a flawless backhand, despite of descending from a Muradi-mare.
“Aghil-Aga III” is not as tall as “Chocim” with a height of 147 cm but very typical and resembles his father a lot, which is why he carries on his name. He is an extremely pleasant animal with wonderful action. He was born on a folwark and his mother was one of the mentioned noble utility mares. Mr. Fröhlich noticed him and took him to the stud. His underwhelming height is probably due to the less favorable nutrition and a lack of care in his early life.
The 3-year-old gray stallion “Omar-Pasza II” from “Omar-Pasza”-“Iskra” s not quite as beautiful as the aforementioned but also a noble and useful horse.
“Chocim” is also used for breeding; in the year 1905, two foals are his, the other five are from “Sembat” – all of them are stallions.
In terms of pedigree, I believe to have characterized the mare material sufficiently. In their appearance, there is hardly a difference to the main stud, apart from the small difference in height – in Gumniska, the average height is 150 cm – and the better feeding condition. It is worth mentioning that the horses are exceptionally trusting. If one shows up in a paddock, one minute later you are surrounded and inspected by the beautiful and good-natured animals.
The brood mares used on the production side are apart from the Arabians mostly Ardennes crosses. The Ardennes horse has been fashionable until very recently and still is in parts of Galicia and Western Russia; It has also achieved some breeding successes, although only in the first generation, as is the rule with cold-blood crosses. These Ardennes crosses are now bred with Arabians; and while the Ardennes blood, possibly due to less intensive feeding so far, has left few traces in the estate’s horse population, the Arabian eminently dominates. In recent years, especially “Aghil-Aga” stood out here; I have seen several very good and sleek horses of his as official’s horses. Moreover, his progeny has been sold as Remounts at higher prices or 88 of them as officer’s horses.
Recently, Gumniska has resolved to promote the indigenous horse variety by a different approach. To this end, an Oldenburger was imported last spring (1905), the black stallion “Kotimar” from “Amur” out of “Klatsche”, and 16 mares were allocated to him. In principle, there is nothing wrong with this mighty animal, except that being a stallion, his head could display more character and his neck could be fuller; considering his age at 14 years, his bones are very impeccable. However, his appearance might cause some distrust that might not be without merit: he belongs to the heaviest type of his variety, which by itself is quite demanding already. Should the resulting cross breeding not be supported with adequate feeding, there will not be any tangible success. This was demonstrated with the Ardennes already and chasing after mass could result in a loss of what is still left of the core and bone of the old blood.
Consequently, the stud houses:
3 sires (“Kotimar”, “Nizam”, “Chocim”).
7 1-yearold stallions,
7 stallion foals,
14 brood mares.
3 1-year-old mares.
In average, four heads, mostly stallions, are sold every year; the latest was the 4-year-old gray stallion “Khalif” from “Aghil-Aga” – “Schipka”, who with a height of 160 cm was rather tall for an Arabian – sold to the Galician Agronomy Association.
As indicated earlier, the breeding direction is the preservation of the old, noble, pure strain that thanks to plentiful feeding should be raised to be tall and strong. At the same time, there is the careful consideration not to lose the desirable Arabian type. An animal that does not have type is eliminated, be it through sale or castration. Several geldings found their home in the carriage stable of the estate. Upon evaluation of the stud population from this perspective, the thought comes to mind spontaneously that Slawuta might not have pulled its conviction out of the air, according to which the correct, typical Arabian could only be small and dry. As I also have mentioned before, when it comes to size, the horses in Gumniska do not differ much from those in Slawuta; the tallest Arabian in Gumniska which is the F.-mare “Schipka II”, measures 153 cm withers height. Often, the tallest are being sold – and they are also easy to sell.
Gumniska hence takes the middle ground between the breeding directions in Slawuta and Antoniny; the idea is not to deprive the animals of their opportunity to fully develop their conformation by feeding them a suboptimal diet. On the other hand, it does not simply strive to recklessly enlarge its material or to raise material that sells well. Rather, it has set the goal to preserve the noble blood that has proven best suited for the majority of the National horse breeding program and to possibly further develop it.
One can only wish this small and likeable stud the best of luck in this endeavor and lots of success.
- Short for studiosus philosophiae, Latin for student of philosophy. This does not correspond to an academic degree. Traditionally, disciplines in the natural sciences fall under philosophy. ↑
- Original footnote: See Maryan Gr. Czapski: Historya powszechna Konia. 1874. Vol. II. ↑
- Original footnote: See previous. ↑
- Translation from the original German “Vollblutaraber”; voll meaning full and describing the noun Blut, blood which in turn describes Arabian. ↑
- As before. ↑
- Translation from the original German “reinblütiger Arabertypus”; rein meaning pure and describing blütig, blooded, as the adjective to Arabian type. ↑
- Original footnote: The details contained in this chapter are taken from a personal, hand-written stud chronicle by Count Roman Sanguszko the elder, grandfather of the current owner of Slawuta. Other parts are taken from Bojanowski: “Za konmi na Wolyu I Ukraine.” ↑
- The original German term is “Rassepferde” (plural). ↑
- Remount referred to the provision of fresh horses, particularly for military purposes. The word encompasses both the animals themselves and the means by which they were provided. In many cases, remounts were horses provided to replace those killed or injured in battle. The origins of the concept date to the 15th century. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Remount, retrieved 4/6/2019. ↑
- Term used in the original German is “Rasse”, exact translation. ↑
- By the 19th century, today’s Istanbul had acquired other names used by either foreigners or Turks. Europeans used Constantinople to refer to the whole of the city, but used the name Stamboul —as the Turks also did—to describe the walled peninsula between the Golden Horn and the Sea of Marmara. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Istanbul, retrieved 04/09/2019. ↑
- Little Russia is a historical political and geographical term referring to most of the territory of modern-day Ukraine before the twentieth century. ↑
- Term used in the original German text is “englische Abkunft”, of English descent. ↑
- From French manège; cognate with French manier and English manage. Manège horsemanship is a specific art of training and riding horses; dressage. ↑
- Term used in the German original text is “arabische Reinzucht”, literal translation. ↑
- The term used in the German original text is “Mohrenschimmel“. ↑
- German term used in the original text is “reinrassig”, of pure breed. ↑
- Strangles is an infectious, contagious disease of Equidae characterized by abscessation of the lymphoid tissue of the upper respiratory tract. The causative organism, Streptococcus equi equi, is highly host-adapted and produces clinical disease only in horses, donkeys, and mules. It is a gram-positive, capsulated β-hemolytic Lancefield group C coccus, which is an obligate parasite and a primary pathogen. Source: www.merckvetmanual.com retrieved 4/14/2019. ↑
- Term used in the German original text is “Vollbluthengst”, full-blood describing stallion. ↑
- Attribute in German, meaning the younger. ↑
- Original German term used is “reinblütig”, of pure blood. ↑
- Original text in German: “… denn die Beimischung des alten Blutes würde sich, wenn man nur die Generationen vom Anfang der systematischen Veredelung, etwa seit 1820, berechnet, auf Bruchteile von Hunderttausendsteln beziffern.” ↑
- Jucker is a Hungarian coach horse of the noble and light type, fast and enduring. ↑
- Folwark is a Polish word for a primarily serfdom-based farm and agricultural enterprise (a type of latifundium), often very large. Folwarks were operated in the Crown of Poland from the 14th century and in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania since the 15th century, from the second half of the 16th century in the joint Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, and survived after the partitions of the Commonwealth in the Russian Empire until the early 20th century. The purpose of Folwarks was to produce surplus produce for export. Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Folwark, retrieved 4/17/2019. ↑
- Short for hectares, a metric unit for area. One hectare equals 2.47 acres approximately. ↑
- The Ardennes or Ardennais is one of the oldest breeds of draft horse and originates from the Ardennes area in Belgium, Luxembourg, and France. ↑
- Original footnote: See von Nathusius “Horse breeding”. ↑
- Short for außer Dienst, retired. ↑
- Original footnote: All height, length, and width measurements mentioned in this work are to be understood as withers measurements and were taken using the Lydtinsche Galgenmass. ↑
- Oberregierungsrat Lydtin in Karlsruhe devised a measuring stick that allowed to reliably obtain different height measurements and was widely in use in breeder circles across livestock species. A depiction of this measuring stick can be found in: “Die österr. Rinder-Racen”, published by k.k. Ackerbau-Ministerium, Vienna 1879; I, p.21. ↑
- dbr. Interpreted as short for dunkelbraun. ↑
- Possibly refers to “vorne gefesselt” or the pasterns or fetlocks in the front. ↑
- Possibly refers to “hinten links gefesselt” or the pasterns or fetlocks in the back left. ↑
- The Kumt harness lies with its complete extension on the horse shoulder and must be adapted to the anatomy of the neck, shoulder and chest of the horse. Usually the Kumt harness is used when heavy loads are to be pulled. ↑
- The Sielen harness or breastplate harness is primarily used in combination with light carriages and on flat terrain. The horses pull with the chest. ↑
- Original footnote: Wladyslaw Count Sanguszko: O sztuce chowu koni I utrzymaniu stada (About the Art of Horse Breeding and the management of a stud) Krakow 1850. ↑
- Original footnote: St. v. Bojanowski: “Za koumi na Wolyn I Ukraine.” Printed at the printing shop of the University Krakow 1902. ↑
- Original footnote: See Bojanowski: Za konmi na Wolyn I Ukraine. ↑
- The original German term is Konstanztheorie which is a school of thought that widely dominated animal breeding up to the first half of the 19th century. The value of a breeding animal was based on the purity of its pedigree alone. ↑
- The Turkoman horse, or Turkmene, was an Oriental horse breed from the steppes of Central Asia, now represented by the modern Akhal-Teke. Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turkoman_horse ↑
- Original German term used is “Stamm” which in a breeding context translates to strain. ↑
- Asia Minor is synonymous with Anatolia, Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau and makes up most of modern-day Turkey. ↑
- Original German text: Von der Nachzucht des “Zboj” musste alles ohne Ausnahme eliminiert werden, … ↑
- The Parforce hunt, or Parforcejagd in German, is a dog-led hunt on horseback. It was already practiced by the Celts and enjoyed great popularity among the European nobility in the 17th and 18th centuries. From the 19th century on, the nature of the hunt required more skill as an equestrian because wide, open spaces became sparser and horses had to master obstacles, like fences, walls, and ditches. The lighter, noble riding horse with great jumping ability became popular. Source: https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parforcejagd Retrieved 7/16/2019. ↑
- Translated from the German word Slawutastamm, where Slawuta is descriptive of the noun Stamm, meaning strain. ↑
- Translated from dbr. Which is interpreted as the adjective ‘dunkelbraun’. ↑
- The open-field system, in German called Gewannwirtschaft, was the prevalent agricultural system in much of Europe during the Middle Ages and lasted into the 20th century in parts of western Europe, Russia, Iran, and Turkey. Under the open-field system, each manor or village had two or three large fields, usually several hundred acres each, which were divided into many narrow strips of land. The strips or selions were cultivated by individuals or peasant families, often called tenants or serfs. The holdings of a manor also included woodland and pasture areas for common usage and fields belonging to the lord of the manor and the church. The farmers customarily lived in individual houses in a nucleated village with a much larger manor house and church nearby. The open-field system necessitated co-operation among the inhabitants of the manor.The Lord of the Manor, his officials, and a Manorial court administered the manor and exercised jurisdiction over the peasantry. The Lord levied rents and required the peasantry to work on his personal lands, called a demesne. Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Open-field_systemRetrieved 06/29/2019. ↑
Pépinière as used in the source text, is a French word that can be translated to incubator, breeding ground, nursery. Here it is used to lend emphasis to the caliber of the breeding program at the facility.
- The Radautzer breed is also called the Old-Austrian Warmblood and is based on mare families at the National stud in Radautz, Austria. Source: http://www.nbwikis.at/archepedia/index.php?title=Alt%C3%B6sterreichisches_Warmblutretrieved July 13, 2019. ↑
- Possibly Fliegenschimmel-Hengst or Fuchs-Hengst, which would translate to flea-bitten stallion or chestnut stallion. ↑
- Ärar is an old term from the Latin Aerarium, widely used in the Austrian monarchy. It encompasses all material and immaterial resources of the state in the sense of public property. ↑
- Possibly Fliegenschimmel-Stute or Fuchs-Stute, which would translate to flea-bitten mare or chestnut mare. ↑