To Wołyń and Ukraine in pursuit of horses (1902)

Za końmi na Wołyń i Ukrainę

By Stefan Bojanowski (1850-1910). Published by the Jagiellonian University in Kraków, 1902. Pages 1-59.

Edited by Lyman Doyle. Translated from Polish by David Rygielski.

Editor’s Note

Stefan Bojanowski writes about his trip to Wołyń and Ukraine and publishes this book about his encounters in 1902. The text reads like part travelog and part history of the region, people and horses. Only the portion of the work dealing with Slawuta/Chrestówka and Antoniny was translated and published below because information on Skowronek’s ancestors is only found here. Bojanwski does not formally cite any references in his book, but much of the historical information he details on the Sanguszko herd mirrors the 1876 history of the Sanguszko stud written by Prince Roman Sanguszko Sr. Stefan Bojanowski would have been 52 years old at the time this book was published. The author offers the following insights and affirmation of information previously published on the ancestors of Skowronek:

  1. The historical documents relating to the origin of the herd clearly indicate “that initially the breeding material was very mixed, created from many, maybe good, but maybe also second-rate sources, with not much value as a ‘race’, but always as an excellent collection of local horses, created through the need to defend the country, with favourable circumstances for breeding and crossing, and being improved for a long time now to a certain degree. Prince (Hieronim) Sanguszko, the Wołyń Voivode was the first person that set a clear direction for breeding noble, oriental horses, by sending Burski to the East for sires.”
  2. He compares the purity of the blood of the Sanguszko horses with those of the Dzieduszycki horses: “If we compare the purity of blood[1] of the Arab horses of the Chrestówka herd, and the Sławuta herd of which the Antoniny herd is a fragment – with Arab horses in Galicia, located in the Jezupolskie, Jabłonowskie, Piwodzkie herds and also in Izydorówka and Taurów – then the latter have the upper hand in terms of the purity of blood. This is because while the herds of Sławuta and Antoniny have been composed of a very mixed breeding material[2], with high value nevertheless, they were still local horses[3], who were only ennobled with sires imported from the East. Meanwhile, the horses in Jezupol, Jabłonów, Piwoda, Izydorówka and Taurów[4] are descendants of only the purest blood[5], since they come from horses that were brought directly from Arabia to the Jarczowce[6] herd by Earl Juliusz Dzieduszycki.”
  3. The stallion Zbój comes to the herd sometime soon after 1812.
  4. “Szumka” was also the name of the horse given to Jozef Poniatowski in 1810. He was painted on this horse by Juliusz Kossak.

The translation follows:


A long, drawn out calling rung out on the platform of the Cracow train station – “Express train in the direction of Lviv, Krasne, and Brody is leaving in five minutes!” A commotion amongst passengers begun, as goodbyes were said and the train was boarded – so I followed the others to find a more comfortable seat, since I had a long journey to Wołyń and Ukraine.

The train picked up full pace, we passed Bochnia, Słotwina and Tarnów. In Dębica, Earl Aleksander Romer from Borowa entered my carriage, as he was taking the same journey as me. We had a rather interesting excursion ahead, thanks to the Committee of the Cracow Farming Society, which sent us to Wołyń and Ukraine with the mission of visiting some of the stud farms there, which are usually Arab ones.

Stopping for a few minutes at the bigger stations, we passed Przemyśl, Lviv, and Krasne – the sun had set beautifully, promising a beautiful day tomorrow. In the darkness of the distance, the thick outlines of the Old Brody castle started showing, we passed the Brody city, and having silently passed the border of the country, we entered a Russian train station in Radziwiłłów.

We leave the carriage and our luggage is taken by a boy. The tall gendarmes standing to attention on the platform show us the way to the arrivals hall with an air of seriousness. Our passports are taken, and our luggage searched. Even though everything is moving easily and pleasantly, the writing on the walls, the décor of the rooms, and the calls and shouts of the rail workers clearly indicate that you are at a Russian station, and that you have passed the Austrian border[7]. An officer of the gendarmerie comes out of the passport office, with another sergeant behind him, they ask about my surname – “kak wasza familia” (a phonetic record of ‘What’s your family called’ in Russian), and that’s the formalities of being admitted to this country done.

In Radziwiłłów we buy a ticket for Sławuta and go to board the carriage. Even though that in Russian trains, at least on the main lines, everything is thought out so that the passengers have maximum comfort, this night journey from Radziwiłłów to Sławuta through Zdolbuniv passed slowly, on a train that phlegmatically winded through the landscape. For someone who can’t sleep on trains, this journey is extremely boring, and cannot be described as pleasant. You know that you are passing through lands unknown, and you would like to see what fields and forests there are out there, what manors and houses, and what people are like there – but the night is dark, and you cannot see anything through the window of the sluggish train.

In Zdolbuniv, we have to stop for an hour and a half, since our train is going to Brest, and we have to go in the opposite direction – towards Kiev.

We get to Sławuta at 2 in the morning, and at the station we are mobbed by seven Jews, who obtrusively offer for their vehicles to take us to the city, around 3 kilometres from the station. One of them, and the smallest and dirtiest, youngest and darkest, is so obtrusive and annoying, that he reminded me of an irate turkey, jumping and pecking at everything and everyone. After chasing away the pest with a cane, we entrusted our luggage, bones, and life to the most modest of them, Chaim Pampere, who took us on his carriage, or should I say an instrument of torture, and dragged by two thin, grey nags, brought us to the first class hotel of Mr. Kacman in Sławuta. The hotel is dark and silent, nobody is coming out – so Chaim Pampere shouts at the top of his lungs that he brought guests to the hotel! The echo of Sławuta forests repeats his cry several times, and a light comes on in the hall, and the hotel owner, the old Mr. Kacman, comes out almost naked, since the hotel employee went back to his private quarters in the city.

We check into a large, cold room – Miss Kacman, the owner’s daughter, brings a boiling samovar and makes great tea. Earl Romer, an unmatched travel companion, pulls out roast chickens, butter, and bread, and we eat an excellent supper, then get into clean, but not very comfortable beds, to get some sleep and in the morning see some princely Arabs in the Sławuta stables.


A very typical gate, an old gate keeper resting at it; a large garden, the Prince’s palace, the quarters of the herd director; white, long outhouses; and finally, a bright outline of a church in the distance, on the background of tall, dark trees – all of this creates a serious picture, dismal almost, and somewhat separate from the rest of the world – it is a place from an older time. The Prince wasn’t here, he was in Crimea recuperating from ill health – so we did not see the palace from the inside, but all of its surroundings, the palace servants, stables, horses and almost everything reminds you of a past age, if not from the age of the Wiśniowieckis, Wychowskis and Różyckis[8], then at least from the latter years of the past century.

When one is here, one has a feeling that a battle horn is about to sound to signal the knights to charge, as if the large courtyard is about to fill with horses and people; who mounted on the steeds leaning over their manes would charge into the Wołyń steppe like the wind.

The palace, stables, courtyard, garden and everything that surrounds the Sławuta residence indicates clearly that its owner holds splendor and needless flaunting in low regard. He has the love of his country and the noble traditions of his clan in his tradition, and next to the unrelenting and devout work at his progressive farm that is his occupation and the aim of his life.

In the palace stables in Sławuta only work horses can be found, and they are all Arab stallions, since the Prince only uses stallions for the cart and the saddle, and only Arabs are kept in Sławuta. The sires, dams, and the foals are located in the Chrestówka herd, approximately 50 kilometres from Sławuta. There is a method: the sires, dams, and recently foaled horses are in the Chrestówka stables; and in Dworzec, a folwark[9] 14 kilometres from Chrestówka, you can find 1, 2 and 3 year old colts, while the fillies are placed on two different folwarks. The three year old fillies are in Tarnowiec, while the 1 and 2 year olds are at the Chrestówka folwark, 2 kilometres from the Chrestówka stables themselves. Apart from the 1 and 2 year olds, old mares and mares for sale are also found there.

When we saw the palace stable in Sławuta, there were 70 cart horses and mounts, and 19 younger stallions between 3 and 4 years of age, who were brought to Sławuta from the Chrestówka herd just a few days prior.

The director of the Sławuta herd is a colonel of the Russian Army, Mr. Trippenbach, and we owe it to him that we could see the whole inventory of stallions in Sławuta stables, as well as the ease and comfort of getting to Chrestówka with a cart from Sławuta.

The first horse that Mr. Trippenbach brought out to the parade ground that is joined to the stables, was a Prince’s white steed, “Dewrisz” of Seglavi blood, bought from the Arabs in Damascus in 1891. An aesthetically beautiful horse, composed well, with a normal, strong build, a good foundation, and typical lines. He is 148 cm tall, and 160 cm deep, and with a shin 20.5 cm thick just under the front knee. A noble[10] head, a well set and lofty neck; large, lively eyes, a wide forehead, wide nostrils. Regular and light in motion, and a mild, but lively temper altogether make a beautiful and noble horse. During our stay in Sławuta, Derwisz was for sale for 700 roubles since he was surplus to the Sławuta stud farm; he ended his career as a riding horse, and as a sire, he served the Chrestówka herd as much as was planned for him.

The second stallion shown to us was a grey, 5 year old “Ralf”, which was raised in the Chrestówka herd from an original Arab sire, “Antar”, who was imported from Damascus by the Prince. Ralf is bigger than Dewrisz, since he is 156 cm and 171 cm deep, but with a more slight bone (shin width 19 cm). He moves well and in a noble manner, and is for sale for 1200 roubles.

After Ralf, two nice chestnut 3 year old stallions were brought in. They were the progeny of “Jussuf”, a stallion bought in Babolna in 1888. Both of these cannot be said to be perfect specimens, since the way they were tied in left a lot to wish for. “Jussuf”, the stallion which we saw the following day in Chrestówka, was raised in Babolna, with undocumented origin. He had a long body and a soft spine, not noble enough and not dry enough for an Arab – but did he serve well as a sire in the Chrestówka herd? We saw a foal of his in Sławuta, a 2 and a half year old “Terrar”, whose dam was “Gaeta”, a mare of very good blood. Terrar perhaps does not impress as a typical horse, but he is a noble horse, well built, with a light, sliding, very good motion; he is large for his age, since he is 151 cm tall today, and 166 cm deep. The bone is strong and good, the shin is over 19 cm.

After Terrar, we were presented with another chestnut, 3 year old son of Jussuf, but a much worse one than Terrar.

We saw the progeny of “Abu-Argub”, an original, imported stallion: a 2 and a half year old colt “Torpiel”, whose dam was “Nawarra” from the Chrestówka herd, the daughter of “Antar” and “Austrya”. What I can say about Nawarra after seeing her in Chrestówka, is that she was not a very typical or noble horse, but a good mare nonetheless; her son, Torpiel, does not resemble her much, he is a noble horse in whom his sire’s blood shows. We didn’t see the sire, Abu-Argub, since he was sent to the herd of Prince Eustachy Sanguszko in Gumniska near Tarnów at the time.

Apart from the aforementioned horses which I described in detail, Mr. Trippenbach showed us a whole range of cart and saddle horses, but I will not make specific remarks, since my remarks could just as easily pertain to the Sławuta herd as a whole – and I will keep those remarks for later, once we have seen the sires, dams and foals in the Chrestówka herd.

Having seen the rest of the stallions in the stables, as well as the park, palace and church, we visited Mr. Trippenbach in his private house, where he hosted us very hospitably. Amongst his enthralling tales of travelling to the East for horses, time passed unnoticeably fast, and a crack of the whip outside reminded us that a carriage is waiting for us to take us on a long journey to the herd in Chrestówka. Having bid farewell to our host, and thanked him for his above and beyond hospitality, we boarded a comfortable, half-open carriage, which was pulled by four grey Arab stallions, out of whom 2 were progeny of “Antar”, and 2 were of “Muzefer-Pasza” – stallions which we will discuss later. An old, veteran carter by the name of Włodek, a noble man of the Szeliga coat of arms, almost struck fire by cracking the whip two times with great vigour as is the Wołyń tradition, and the stallions picked up pace rapidly. At first, they jumped around and danced as is customary for oriental horses – however, soon they all synchronised and pulled the carriage with an even, calm trot. We passed through the city and the bridge across Horyń River, and having passed mills, lumber camps, a paper factory and a forester’s lodge, we entered the beautiful, vast pine forests of the Sławuta county, which I would like to say a few words about.

The Sławuta county stretches from the north to the south from the border of the Nowogradwołyński and Ostrogski counties, towards the Podolia governorship, and stretches approximately 90 kilometres down, and 35 kilometres across, and its general area is 63,572 Dessiatins[11],[12]; so around 254 thousand Magdeburg morgens[13]. The Sławuta forests join with the Krzywiński forests on one side, and Szepetowski and Połoński forests on the other, and their area is 37,109 Dessiatins, so around 148 thousand Magdeburg morgens. The north part of the Sławuta county is cut across by the Kiev-Brest road, and a post road cut through the middle, connecting Ostróg with Zasławie and Konstantynów.

  1. The Sławuta country comprised of 3 economic departments, namely:
  2. Sławucki, with the headquarters in Janoszówka
  3. Zasławski, with the headquarters in Zasławie
  4. Białogródecki, with the headquarters in Białogród

The Sławucki department has 14 folwarks, Zasławskie 21, and Białogródeckie 26, making 61 altogether. The area of the Sławuta county is, like I mentioned above, 63,572 Dessiatins, and they are split in the following way:

Sławuckie Dept Zasławskie Dept Białogródecki Total
Ploughed land 6,506 5,144 7,705 19,355
Meadows 1,598 659 1,649 3,906
Forests 21,300 13,863 1,946 37,109
Unfarmed land 148 249 342 739
Water and unusable 1,053 790 620 2,463
Total 30,605 20,705 12,262 63,572

2) The management of the forest has been carried out correctly in the whole estate, according to a 10-year plan, approved by the Prince owner. For the high forest, pine is to be harvested after 120 years, oak after 200; for low forest specimens, such as birch, alder, etc, a 60 year period is planned. The harvest each year is to be 400 dessiatins at most, that is 1600 Magdeburg morgens. In reality, no more than 200 dessiatins are chopped. The harvested glades are filled with saplings as soon as the spring comes. The saplings come from specially prepared arboretums, but some seeds are also spread to help. The forests are split into 3 inspectorates and 19 districts; The main council of the forests is located in Sławuta itself.

3) Farming management. On all folwarks within this administration, a rotation of crops has been running for years, with a 6 – 14 field rotation. The main products farmed for sale are: rape, wheat, sugar beets, and clover. For the needs of the estates: rye, oat, barley, pea, broad beans, millet, and lupin. On leased folwarks, there partly is a crop rotation, and partly a three-field system. The Sławucki department has most light soil and some impermeable black clay, in Zasławski it is predominantly permeable black soil, and in Białogrodecki permeable black soil with clay. The average sowing amounts to, in Magdenburg morgens: rape – 3,000, wheat – 6,400, rye – 3,000, barley – 1,300, oat – 7,200, pea – 720, clover – 4,000, sugar beets – 3,500 and 900 for potatoes.

4) Keeping of livestock. In the Sławuta county, horses are bred for the herd and for work on the farm. Next would be Negretti sheep in large amounts, while there is almost no cattle farming. Cattle for home use are purchased individually, while work oxen are purchased in the southern governorships. In a report from the 1st of July 1899, we read that the total numbers of the Sławuta country were the following:

40 stallions for producing work horses, 1154 work horses, 753 foals between 1 and 4 years old, 180 foals younger than a year, together: 2127; The horses of the Chrestówka herd and the ones in the Prince’s stables in Sławuta (308 horses) are not included in this calculation, but if we included it, it would make 2435 horses in the Sławuta country on the 1st of July 1899. There were 1114 oxen, 19343 sheep, no more than 53 cows, and 115 calves.

5) There are the following factories and industries in the Sławuta country:

1) A cloth factory in Sławuta

2) 2 large mills in Sławuta and Zasławie, 30 smaller mills on River Horyn

3) 3 distilleries in Cwetosz, Michla and Marynin

4) One large brewery in Sławuta

5) 3 paper factories in Sławuta, Michla and Siwki

6) 2 steam lumber mills, one in Sławuta, one in Cwetosz

7) 1 tannery in Sławuta

8) 1 coppersmithy in Łabaksy near Zasławie

9) 2 lime kilns: one in Helenów, one in Radoszówka

10) A brickyard in each department

11) A medical facility in Sławuta

12) Two loan banks in Sławuta and Białogród

13) A cowshed in Wydumka near Zasławie that makes dessert butter for sale from purchased milk

6) Administration. In Sławuta itself, the main council, its coffers and administration, as well as a legal department are located. In the economic departments: in Janoszówka, Zasławie and Białogród, twice a month, a session takes place that unites all the folwark owners. In the main council in Sławuta, once a month there is a general session under the leadership of the Prince owner, or the head of the council. Local officials attend these meetings. In forestry, a general session and an inspectorate session take place once a month.


We arrived in Chrestówka at night; we were welcomed by a Mr. Berger, an ex-veterinarian of the Austrian army, currently running the Chrestówka herd. Chrestówka itself is a stud farm in the full meaning of that word, there is nothing amiss from Mr. Berger’s manor, huge stables, paddocks and pastures with several dozen Arab horses, and three houses of the stable workers.

Today’s Chrestówka herd comes from the end of the 18th century, from Prince Hieronim Sanguszko, the son of Prince Paweł, the Crown Marshall. When Prince Hieronim took over managing of the Chrestówka herd, only then did the herd start showing signs of the direction in which it was being taken in through the systematic enrichment[14]. The Chrestówka herd, being a splinter of the Sanguszko herds, did not have a clear direction, since it came from a time when the Sanguszko Princes, having come from Lithuania, settled in Wołyń and Ukraine, and brought their best horses with them. The origin of the Chrestówka herd then, dates from a foggy period when Polish knights had to chase their enemies and invaders off on horseback. They were composed of only horseback riders, and the success of the expedition, the life and fame of the riders, and even the fate of the nation depended on the ability of the horses. During the times of constant fighting and invasion, the Sanguszko Princes, as regional rulers, had to supply excellent horses for their regional cavalry, and for their own private militia, which was customary to have at the time. During these war expeditions, they appreciated value of keeping and breeding horses, and verified whether the direction of the breeding was appropriate for the task. During these expeditions, prime sires of the East were obtained and subsequently used for breeding without asking for a pedigree or about origin, as it was understood that a Muslim warrior would not entrust his life to a horse of uncertain blood and untried ability.

At this time, the imperative for breeding the best horses had a political meaning that was felt in the whole country. Mutual help allowed producing of fine material, between friends, and even the rich men lent their horses if there was a need for a proven sire.

One of those proven noble, and able stallions was “Dzianet”, who Pasek[15] described in the following manner: “when the heads in the herd started to thicken, the necks shorten, and the legs swelled – a gentleman would bow to the Voivode[16] and ask for the Dzianet, and the herd would improve for some years.”

When the conflicts with the Muslims and Crimean Tatars stopped, the ease of finding proven, oriental sires also decreased, while the need for refreshing the blood of the national herds was becoming more urgent. Prince Hieronim Sanguszko, the Wołyń Governor, could have been one of the first people who had the thought to bring the appropriate stallions directly from Arabia to Europe, and sent a real expedition to Arabia that he entrusted to a courtier of his – Burski.

While Burski was searching for horses in the East, a dark bay[17] Arab stallion, “Politowski” found his way into the Chrestówka herd. It was imported from Istanbul for King Stanisław August, but it was too small for him, and was gifted to a courtier, Politowski, who subsequently sold the horse to the Governor Prince.

After a two year journey, Burski returned to Sławuta successfully, and brought one mare and four stallions with him that then played a significant role in the Chrestówka herd.

In 1812, in the era of Napoleonic conquests, when Prince Hieronim passed away, the horses passed onto Prince Eustachy through inheritance, and the Chrestówka herd suffered so extensively, that the only horses that survived were the ones that could be hidden in the enormous Smełderowskie forests. Prince Eustachy loved horses and was loyal to the tradition of his clan, and surrounded the damaged Chrestówka herd with his care. Due to passport troubles, he couldn’t send an entourage to source the right sires from the East, so for the time being, he purchased four stallions from Jassy, from the main commander Earl Gudowicz, namely: a golden bay “Szach-a-dir”, a white “Cyrus”, a grey “Ptak” and “Złoto-Wilczaty”. During this time, a fifth stallion found his way into the Chrestówka herd, a white “Zbój”, beautiful, strong, and of rare ability. So ambitious that if he was not held down or tied down, he allowed the removal and application of horseshoes, but if he was held and forced, he would knock everyone over, bite, and he was able to rip the strongest ropes. Since Prince Eustachy noticed that neither “Zbój”, nor the stallions from Earl Gudowicz were appropriate sires for the Chrestówka herd – then, in the vein of his father – he sent a second expedition to Arabia from Sławuta in 1816. He entrusted the leadership of the mission to his equerry, Tomasz Moszyński, who had Franciszek Świerczyński and three Cossacks as help. Harasym, who had already been to Arabia with Burski; Szrewer and Michałek. In November 1818, the whole expedition returned to the country successfully, and brought nine stallions with them:

  1. “Neżdy”, grey, was purchased in Istanbul for 10,200 leva.
  2. Haylan” white, was purchased in Damascus for 3,500 leva, Haylan was a first-rate sire, and it is insisted that he was the founder of our herd;
  3. Gray “Rabdan” bought in the Hamah desert for 3,700 leva.
  4. Dżulfa”, a grizzled gray one, from the Babak Desert – 1,300 leva.
  5. “Big Obejan” , bought in Aleppo for 3,150 leva.
  6. Chestnut “Dziedran”, bought in the Hamah Desert for 2,200 leva. This horse was later sent to the Prussian stable in Neustadt.
  7. “Semrawi-Seglawi”, purchased in Istanbul for 2,800 leva.
  8. Bay “Seglawi”, bought in the desert for 2,000 leva.
  9. A grizzled gray colt, “Kbeszan”, purchased in the Babak Desert for 700 leva, and a chestnut mare, “Seglavia”, which cost 2,000 leva.

The portraits of these horses were made by a Vienna painter, Kruchhuber, and decorated the chambers of Prince Eustachy in Gumniska.

The most expensive of the stallions was “Neżdy”, bought in Istanbul for 10,200 leva; and it is this horse that the Prince is describing to his brother in law, general Mokronowski: “white like silver, the eyes, tail and mane black, a height of the highest order, and unusual beauty.” The Prince could not enjoy this horse for long, as it died of colic 18 months after arriving.

Between 1821 and 1826, a Syrian Arab by the name of Arutin stayed in Aleppo at Prince Eustachy’s service. He brought three transports from the East to Sławuta, and amongst them, the following 9 stallions: chestnut “Kohejlandzius”, “Hemdan” and “Dzielfa”, a bay “Small Obejan”, grizzled-grey “Giejk”, “Sebha” and “Gbeszan”, grey “Benissar” and “Managi”. Four mares: “Gazella”, “Gawra”, “Hadba” and “Gidy”. Later came a chestnut “Dzidran”, purchased in Istanbul in 1842 with the help of a negotiator, Glioccho. Even as late as 1844, when Prince Roman on his return from Jerusalem stopped over in Aleppo, he received a message that the wife of Musselim Batran-Aga, a Beduin, received a horse of a very high race from the Seglawi family. He began a negotiation with the husband of the woman, a hard, difficult negotiation, which was the custom for Europeans purchasing horses there. It was appropriate to create great resistance and difficulty when selling a horse like this, since it was said that it was last of its generation in Arabia. However, the Prince struck a deal, and the valuable, grey “Batran-Aga Dżedran” was purchased, along with a young foal of beautiful shapes and energetic movements, called “El-Szam” (El-Sham). The horses were sent by land through Asia Minor to an acquaintance of Glioccho in Istanbul, since the prince could not take them with him. The horses were held by Glioccho for ten months in Istanbul, and it was probable that they would be lost. They were only recovered with the help of the embassy. “Dżedran” and “El-Szam” got to Sławuta in 1846. Shortly later it became apparent that the stories told in Aleppo were not untrue. The vice-king of Egypt, appreciating the high class and blood purity of “Dżedran”, sent an offer to Sławuta through the Russian Consulate to purchase the stallion and all of its descendants, as he was the last of the “Seglawi – Dżedran” family. The Prince however valued this horse very highly and did not want to concede it.

In the years 1853 – 1854 Prince Roman came into possession of two original Arabs, namely, a white, older “Azeta” of the Obejan Istambulat race, born in Kaiffia, and a grey stallion, “Abucheil”, of the Dżedran blood. Both of these horses were purchased by Earl Juliusz Dzieduszycki, the first being purchased in Angora[18], Asia Minor – and the latter was purchased from Bedouins near Angora. Earl Dzieduszycki sold these horses to Prince Roman in the years 1853 – 1854.

In 1855, the Prince bought an original Arab stallion – “Abu-Lele” – from some Nubian in Berlin. Simultaneously, he purchased “Silver Obejan” from the stable of Earl Rozwadowski in Galicia, which was raised from original Arabs.

The next third excursion to Arabia organised by Prince Roman happens in 1857 under the leadership of Franciszek Świerczyński and Władysław Czerniawski. They followed the traces of previous Sanguszko missions from 40 years prior, but they went at a difficult time, since the Turkish war used a lot of horses. A simultaneous mission of Colonel Brudermann was sent by the Austrian emperor to purchase horses: he went around and bought up whatever was best. The religious tensions boiling over in the East led to bloody skirmishes between Christians and Muslims, and made the travels in that part of the world more dangerous. Regardless of these obstacles, Świerczyński and Czerniawski were able to make an excellent purchase. They brought the following horses to Sławuta:

  1. a white “Mahomet” – of the HaitHali race, from the Eljoufouk generation of the Kohejlan family, with a strong build and beautiful shapes,
  2. “Anazi” – white with dark spots, of the Anazi race, a real, typical son of the desert,
  3. pink-grey “Seglawi-Ardzebi”, of a high race, and finally:
  4. Kohejlan-Abu” with a black mane and tail, a very long and light stride, and unusual dryness and nobility.

In 1859, two original Arab stallions find their way into the Chrestówka herd:

  1. A black “Seglawi” (Black-Arabian), was bought from the stable of the Leedes Prince,
  2. “Indyanin”, a white stallion with a black tail and mane, an original Arab born in India, brought to England from Calcutta and bought from there in 1859, to be later sold to the Branickis, to Ukraine, and renamed “Nizam”.

In the last 40 years, so from 1861 until 1901, the following sires have joined the Chrestówka herd:

In 1861, a white “Derwisz”, an original Arab purchased in the southern Arab desert; “Dżelabi”, an original light-bay Arab, was bought in Yemen, and was often called by that name in Sławuta.

In 1862, “Szems”, a white original Arab, bought in Cairo by Prince Roman Sanguszko during travels around Egypt.

In 1864, “Feruk-Han”, a skarogniady (dark bay) original Arab-Persian[19] stallion, bought from Earl Juliusz Dzieduszycki. “Szech Mahomet”, a white original Arab from Syria, a horse of an excellent race and beautiful shapes, was found by Prince Roman at a post office in Dubno amongst other postal horses and bought from there.

In 1865, a bay, younger “Feruk-Han”, raised at Earl Dzieduszycki’s from original Arabs; a bay “Aghil-Aga”, bought by Brudermann in 1850 for the Austrio-Hungarian Empire’s stables in Babolna, but Prince Roman Sanguszko managed to buy it 15 years later. The son of Aghil-Aga, with the same name as the sire, has played and still does play a very significant role in the herd of Prince Eustachy Sanguszko in Gumniska, near Tarnów, in Galicia. Apart from the aforementioned, two more original Arab stallions join the Chrestówka herd, namely “Jamri” and “Bagdadi”

In 1867, “Hammad”, about whom I have no detailed information.

In 1868, a white original Arab “Hadudi”, of the Hadben race, born in the Syrian Arabia deserts, with the Anaze Ruola Bedouins, was brought in 1857 by an Austrian expedition under General Brudermann into the Austro-Hungarian empire’s stables in Lipizza.

In 1870, “Kohejl-Neżdy”, original white Arab, bought by Zimmerman in Baghdad in 1870. During this year, two original Arab mares join the herd: white and black “Dżelfa”.

In 1872, Prince Eustachy gifts a horse from Gumniska, a bald chestnut “Arabi Pasha” from the mare Elsissa and Halim, original Arabs. “Ras-El-Abiad”, a chestnut and original Arab, brought from the East by Zimmerman. Also, two other original Arab stallions: “Trafani” and “Hemdani”

In 1875, a white “Ezrek-Seglawi”, brought over from the East when he was 9.

In 1879, “Obejan-Szaraki”, a bay original Arab was bought by Prince Roman from the Sefer Pasha in Bertoldstein in June 1879. “Akbar”, an original Arab purchased in Wales, from the stable of the Welsh prince in 1879.

In 1880, “Ebean-Geriz”, an original cherry-bay Arab, bought from the Austrian consul in Cairo.

In 1887, “Handżar”, a slightly bald chestnut of pure Arabian blood, raised in Uzin in the herd of Earl Konstanty Branicki.

In 1888, a bay “Jussuf”, a stallion of unproven origin was bought from the herd of the Austrian emperor in Babolna.

In 1889, a bay original Arab “Wodan”, was bought from Mr. Zimmerman in Cairo in 1888 by Prince Eustachy and gifted to his brother for the Chrestówka herd. “Semchan”, an original grizzled-grey Arab, was bought in Cairo also.

In 1890, a bay original Arab “Kohejlan-Dzidran”, and a bay “Aby-Argub”, both of them purchased on the 7th July 1890 in Warsaw from a Turk, Abuziarow.

In 1891, a bay original Arab “Antar”, whose two sons were the horses that took us to Chrestówka from Sławuta, and “Dewrisz”, grizzled-grey original Arab that we saw in Sławuta. Both purchased from Arabs in the East.

In 1896, a bay original Arab “Seglavi-Dżedran”, bought from the Khedivé herd in Egypt; a white “Ruheli”, a black “Seglavi” born in the herd of the Pasha of Egypt, bought in Cairo; Original Arab “Massad” of the Saclaoni-Jardan race, of the Anaze-Nagde tribe, bought as a 16 year old, also from the Pasha in Cairo. This horse was reportedly of very high blood, beautiful and exceedingly noble, and only left behind 2 colts and 6 fillies, as it died in 1899.

In 1900, the following were purchased in Constantinople: a chestnut “Ilderim”, a white “Dżejlan” and a white “Arslan”.

During our stay in Chrestówka, there were the following six imported stallions: Ilderim, Arslan, Seglavi-Dżedran, Antar, Dżejlan and Ruheli – as well as Inssuf, purchased in Babolna. We saw Dewrisz in Sławuta, and Abu-Argub was sent for some time to the herd of Prince Eustachy in Gumniska.


We started our review of horses in Chrestówka with the sires, the first brought out was the:

“Ilderim”, a chestnut 5 year old, purchased in 1900 by Colonel Trippenbach in Constantinople. He came out of the stable joyous and gentle, with a pretentious and coquettish expression, as he knows he is pretty; a net of delicate and slightly thicker veins came out from underneath his shining golden coat, he looked around and having swung his excellent tail, and as is customary for oriental horses, he rose, waved his front legs in the air, and sighed so loudly that steam exploded from his wide nostrils, he neighed with a metallic, but joyous voice – and the rest of the stallions replied from the depths of the stable! Ilderim is a noble and beautiful horse with an excellent, typical build, he is dry, well tied together, deep; not too large as he is only 145 cm in height, but very wide for his height; he has a regular, long, light, excellent stride; in one word, it is a very positive specimen that you can trust to be a superb sire for the Chrestówka herd.

The second stallion presented to us was the white “Arslan”, with a black tail and mane, a 14 year old, 151 cm in height, purchased in 1900 in Constantinople. The valuable Kohejlan blood flows in him, and he makes the impression of a very noble horse. Apparently, Sławuta has not seen a horse of such high blood in a long time; he has a beautiful profile both still and in motion; an image of a real, dry, Eastern “son of the desert”, but what kind of sire he will be is still to be determined from his progeny.

The third was the 10 year old, dark bay “Seglavi-Dżedran”, raised in the Khedive herd in Egypt, purchased in 1896, he is larger than the previous two, as he is 153 cm tall, less noble than Arslan, but thick, deep and strong.

The fourth jumps out of the stable with a light and graceful motion, full of life and fire, a 20 year old, dark bay, 149 cm tall, the original Arab “Antar” Kohejlan. Bought in Damascus in 1891, a pretty horse, noble, and gentle with a harmonious build and good motion, very reminiscent of the Juliusz Kossak painting of “Szumka” – the stallion that Prince Eustachy Sanguszko gave as a gift to Prince Józef Poniatowski in 1810, a horse that Prince Józef often rode and was most often portrayed on. That horse was a birth brother of Szumka I, the mount of Prince Eustachy, a black stallion that has carved a name of historical significance for himself with his paramount ability.

The fifth horse imported from the Orient that was shown to us was a white, 16 year old, 151 cm tall “Dżejlan”, bought in 1900 in Constantinople. A horse that is noble and typical, but somewhat heavy, with a thick and short neck.

The sixth and last stallion that we saw in Chrestówka was a white, 14 year old, 153 cm tall “Ruheli”, born in the herd of Ali Pasha Sherif in Cairo, bought from there in 1896. A well-built horse, but not very indicative that the high Seglavi blood flows in him.

The seventh stallion we saw was “Iussuf”[20], a bay horse purchased in 1888 in Babolna and raised in the Austrian emperor’s herd; of unproven origin and unlikeable, long, soft in the spine, not dry and not typical enough, but unfortunately very fertile. I say ‘unfortunately’, as the numerous offspring of his can be very easily spotted amongst the other horses, meaning that this son of the Babolna herd is not a good enough sire for the Chrestówka mares.

Apart from these seven stallions, Mr. Berger had also shown us the three following sires that were raised in the Chrestówka herd: “Muzefer-Pasza”, a dark, grizzled grey, 9 year old, 149 cm stallion, from the mare Reduta and stallion Rymnik. “Mendok”, a grizzled grey, 9 year old, 152 cm tall stallion, son of Cigaretta and Attyk. The third: “Mazepa”, a bay, 9 year old, 156 cm tall son of Delja and Achmet-Ejub.

“Mazepa” is a beautiful horse, very correctly built, strong, deep, able, practical, but still noble. We wanted to purchase him for the Cracow Farming Society, as a sire for the Limanowski region, that corner of Galicia in which many old Galician horses of Oriental origin still remain, and where people still raise horses with a real, even knightly, passion.

Unfortunately, all the steps that we took towards purchasing Mazepa were for nothing, since the Prince sent a message from Crimea that the horse was not for sale, as he is to remain as a sire in the herd that he was born in.


In the Chrestówka herd, mares are chosen for breeding on the basis of their origin, nobility, beauty of shape, and good history of the previous generations – ability or resilience is not taken into account, as the mares here, both young and old, are not used for any work. After the fourth birthday, the stallions and mares raised in the herd are marked with a number branded into their left shoulder, and a princely crown on the left hip.

Usually in May, the Prince brings numerous guests to Chrestówka, and after eliminating the older mares that he does not want to keep in the herd any longer, he splits the younger mares as ones for breeding in the herd, and others for sale. During this event, the 1 year old foals are named. The names start with a different letter each year, in alphabetical order, so that the name of the horse also indicates its year of birth. Amongst the guests invited to Chrestówka by the Prince, ladies name the fillies, and the colts are named by the gentlemen.

When we were visiting the Chrestówka herd, there were 101 mares, located between the stud farm in Chrestówka, and the folwark of the same name. In the boxes, only mares with their foals remain; the barren mares, or those who have had foals separated from them already, are places in large enclosures that take up the whole stable, 10 to 15 mares together, since those enclosures have exits to large paddocks outside the stable, so the mares can move around freely.

The first mare shown to us was a white one with tiny brown spots[21], 19 years old and 147 cm tall, “Brumana”, the daughter of “Inżynier”, and the dam of “Olgierd”, who along with “Melpomena”, who will be described next, represented the Sanguszko horses at the international Parisian exhibition in Vincennes. “Brumana” is a well built mare, deep, quite noble, presenting a result of a good stallion and a good dam.

The second mare brought out to us was the aforementioned, beautiful “Melpomena” – born from Achmet-Ejub (whose sire was “Erzak Seglavi”, and the dam “Pusta”) and Trychina, who was born from Hadżi Achmet and Dianka. Melpomena is a mare of unusual beauty, very noble exceedingly dry, typical to a very high degree, with a perfect build. Born in 1892, 148 cm tall, with an unattractive coat, but very typical of an Arab, as it was more spotty than white. When we saw her, she wasn’t in a good condition, as she was heavily pregnant, but I couldn’t say with which stallion, as I scribbled his name roughly with a freezing hand in my notebook, and I cannot read it today. Melpomena was exhibited in Vincennes amongst Russian horses in the “Pur Sang” Oriental horse category and received a gold medal, prompting the Parisian magazine “Revue Hippique” to write about her and Olgierd in Issue 355 from 1900. [Translator’s note: Original passage in French[22]]

After Melpomena, we were shown “Norwegia”, a 149 cm tall, grizzled grey mare born in 1891, from the stallion Antar and mare Terapia (daughter of Inżynier). A very attractive mare, noble, and typical, with a lofty neck and sizable withers. This mare received a silver medal and a cash prize of 300 roubles at the last horse exhibition in Petersburg.

The next mare, mentioned before as the dam of Mendok, a white, 150 cm tall, “Cigaretta”, born in 1883 from the stallion Inżynier and dam Trychina, therefore, a half-sister of Melpomena on the dam’s side, and a half-sister of Brumana on the sire’s side. A beautiful, typical mare, with slightly flappy ears, but a great dam.

After Cigaretta, a bay, 149 cm mare was introduced – “Nawarra”, born in 1893 from Antar and Austrya. This is the dam of Torpiel that we saw in Sławuta; good enough for a horse, but perhaps not noble, and not typical enough as a mare for the Chrestówka herd.

It is difficult to mention all the mares that we saw in the Chrestówka herd, and it would be more difficult to describe them all in detail, but I would like to mention at least a few mares that stuck in my memory, as an image of beautiful, noble, and typical specimens of the Chrestówka mares. Hopefully I will not make too many mistakes while I list the following mares:

“Gramatyka”, white with brown spots, 150 cm tall, born in 1887 from stallion Akbar and mare Sybilla.

“Magnolia”, 152 cm tall, born in 1892 from stallion Achmet-Ejub and mare Cetynia.

“Ryxa”, grizzled grey, 145 cm tall, born in 1896 from stallion Abu-Argub and mare Lewandam the daughter of Iussuf and Faworyt.

“Polityka”, grizzled grey, 148 cm tall, born in 1895 from stallion Abu-Argub and mare Dalmacya.

“Elma”, white, 151 cm tall, born in 1885 from stallion Arabi Pasza and mare Zenobia.

“Roma”, grizzled grey, 149 cm tall, born in 1896 from stallion Semchan and mare Fantazya.

“Saragossa”, a 150 cm bay mare, born in 1897 from stallion Abu-Argub and mare Lesbia.

“Lydia”, a 155 cm tall, chestnut, born in 1891 from stallion Semchan and mare Austrya.

“Sylwia”, a grizzled grey, 150 cm tall mare, born in 1897 from stallion Semchan and mare Brumana.

“Rusałka”, bay but with white horses, 149 cm tall, born in 1896 from stallion Antar and mare Thetis.

“Pyszna”, a grizzled grey, 147 cm tall mare, born in 1895 from stallion Rymnik and mare Pusta.

“Regentka”, bay and 149 cm tall, born in 1896 from stallion Abu-Argub and mare Dalmacya, a birth sister of Polityka, who was older by one year, and very similar to her in terms of the neck.


The youth of the Chrestówka herd is located in such a way that the colts and fillies are separated between folwarks, approximately 14 kilometres from each other, and so”

One, two and three year old colts are located at the “Dworzec” folwark,

Three year old fillies stand in “Tarnowiec”, the one and two year olds at the “Chrestówka” folwark.

When we visited the herd, not counting the offspring from 1901, there were 109 foals, namely: 51 colts and 58 fillies:

Colts Mares Total
3 year old 12 22 34
2 year old 21 17 38
1 year old 18 19 37
Total 51 58 109

The table[23] on the next page will explain how many foals there were in the years 1898, 1899, 1900 raised in the Chrestówka herd from each sire.

On the 1st of April, there were the following foals born in 1901: From Ruheli – 4, Antar – 4, Seglavi Dżedran – 3, Musefer Pasza 3, Mazepa 2, Olgierd 2, Abu-Argub 1, and Dewrisz – 1, making 20 total

Sires Fillies in the year Colts in the year Total
Name Origin 1900 1899 1898 1900 1899 1898
Ruheli Original Arab 6 2 4 3 5 1 21
Iussuf Babolna 2 3 3 2 4 6 20
Dżedran Seglavi Original Arab 2 3 2 4 3 1 15
Antar Dto 1 2 3 3 2 2 13
Abu-Argub Dto 1 1 2 2 2 1 9
Massad Dto 3 3 2 8
Mazepa Sławuta 2 1 3 2 8
Dewrisz Original Arab 1 2 1 4
Semchan Dto 1 2 1 4
Dżedran Kohejlan Dto 3 3
Seglavi Ardzebi Sławuta 1 1 2
Fajum Dto 1 1
Attyk Dto 1 1
19 17 22 18 21 12 109

If we take into account the origin of the stallions, then we can divide the foals of the years 1898, 1899 and 1900 into the following three categories:

  1. Offspring of original imported stallions: colts – 44, fillies – 33, total – 77
  2. Offspring of Iussuf from Babolna: colts – 8, fillies – 12, total – 20
  3. Offspring of stallions raised in the Chrestówka herd: colts – 6, fillies – 6, total – 12

Total: 109, 58 colts, 51 fillies.

It is an obvious thing that some of these offspring bear the marks and characteristics of the three categories of sires, of which each one gave its offspring certain characteristics, and maybe flaws, when it comes to the build, nobility, and type – and with this being said, one could make the general remark that the fillies at a glance present themselves as better built, more noble, and more typical than the colts.

The offspring of “Massad” was six fillies and two colts, and I would count them amongst the best – and it is a great shame that their sire died early and cannot continue reproducing.

The twelve daughters and nine sons of “Ruheli”, who in spite of his insignificant, light, deer-like neck line, has passed on a nobility of form, dryness and type to some of his offspring; they are less deep and on longer legs.

The offspring of “Antar”, thirteen individuals, is marked by a harmonious build, rounded shapes and good motion.

The four foals of “Semchan” are less aesthetically pleasing, but we see a stronger build, and an excellent foundation, with a wide and strong bone.

The offspring of “Seglavi-Dżedran”, are perhaps less noble, but foreseeably they will develop into strong horses.

The four colts and five fillies of “Abu-Argub” indicate that their sire has to be a first class horse, and perhaps that is why Prince Roman gave it to his father ‘s herd in Gumniska.

The progeny of “Mazepa” has a strong and correct build, just like the sire.

We already mentioned “Iussuf” as a sire above; You would expect to see him in his offspring, that nerve and firmness, the prominent muscle and dryness, the bold outline of a drawing; but they are horses you cannot see that in, horses in which you cannot see that something under the skin that is referred to as class, because they do not look as if they were cast from bronze, but give an impression of a roughly moulded model, which is still waiting for the finishing touch of an able artist’s hand.

The grey stallion “Attyk” born in 1881 in the Chrestówka herd, son of Erzak-Seglavi, from Odaliska Nr 312, from Neżdy-Kohejlan, from Hama, from Kohejlan Abu-Argub, from Caramba, imported in the dam’s womb from the desert to Sławuta – he had been sold to the Austrian Emperor’s herd in Radowce on the 28th of February 1898, and is currently leased to Mr. Longin-Łobosow, to his famous Arab stud farm in Taurów.

We haven’t had the chance to see the progeny of Dewrisz, Dżedran Kohejlan, Seglavi Ardzebi and Fajum enough for us to speak on the characteristics or flaws of these three stallions as sires.

If we look through the old writings in the Sławuta archive, pertaining to historical memory of certain stallions and mares that played a certain role in the Sanguszko horse breeding, and from which the Chrestówka herd was created, then we will conclude that in the past, it was managed without a systematic direction and a clear aim in the breeding.

These stallions bore the following names: “Turecki rosły” (Turkish, well built), “Siwy neapolitański” (grey Neapolitan), “Andrusiewicz kasztanowaty” (chestnut from Mr Andrusiewicz), “Cesarz skarogniady” (dark bay Emperor), “Weleżyński skarogniady” (Dark bay from Mr. Weleżyński), “Angielski kasztan” (English chestnut), “Egipski biały” (white Egyptian), “Pruszyński różowo-siwy” (greyish pink one from Mr. Pruszyński – the chamberlain Antonin Pruszyński, the brother of the Princess Governor of Wołyń, who lived in Siemaki on Wołyń, a manor belonging to Sławuta), “Pers gniady” (bay Persian), “Warszawczyk” (Varsovian), “Elzner”, “Pers” (Persian), “Siwy swego chowu” (our own grey haired one) and others; and mares such as “Czerniatyńska”, “Mianoska”, “Ribińska”, “Czerkaska”, “Sobolowata”, “Warszawska”, “Niemka gniada”, “Gulka kasztanawota” and many more alike, which indicates clearly that initially the breeding material was very mixed, created from many, maybe good, but maybe also second-rate sources, with not much value as a “race”, but always as an excellent collection of local horses, created through the need to defend the country, with favourable circumstances for breeding and crossing, and being improved for a long time now to a certain degree. Prince Sanguszko, the Wołyń Governor was the first person that set a clear direction for breeding noble, oriental horses, by sending Burski to the East for sires. This direction has been kept since then in the Chrestówka herd, and the present Sławuta horse – a ennobled[24], typical and beautiful horse, is a product of systematic breeding by four generations of the Sanguszko Princes, who raised with a knightly love the Arab horses, whose ancestors once made up the Cossack herds.


Two older, white, Arab stallions of the Chrestówka stud farm were steered by the experienced hand of an old wagoner, pulled us from Chrestówka in the open, dark fields and steppes of Wołyń. The road was excellent, dry, winding up and down the rolling hills and through the vast expanse. Sometimes we passed some villages, and the people returning from working in the fields greeted us with a hand gesture customary in this region; sometimes, a bridge on the river or a wider stream would rumble underneath our wheels; sometimes, a small cart would stop by the side of the road to let us pass, carts here having typical long, wooden axles, and drawn by three fat, small, typical horses, of the primitive local race. The dusk was falling on the vast expanse, the road was taking us closer to our destination, winding through enchanting ravines. Five riders on beautiful horses rode ahead of us, and on the background of a beautiful English park we finally saw the white outline of a long and spacious Antoniny palace. Pillars of dark smoke were rising from its chimneys – a welcoming perspective for cold and hungry travellers!

Opposite the palace, there are long, enormous stables; we entered a large square and rode straight towards the palace. On the right side, we passed various buildings and charming stables for guest’s horses; further on the same side, on the hill, there is a tasteful villa in the Old German style, the house of the ‘gentleman of the horse’ – Mr. R. de Kadish – under whose expert directorship the Antoniny stud farm falls under. On the left, we pass the house of the Court Advisor, Mr. Artur Śliwiński, the attorney of Earl Józef Potocki – and the administrator of the Antoniny estate. Finally, we pass under an impressive gate, headed by a crest on a blue background, and we ride into the courtyard between the palace and stables.

Once in the courtyard, we introduce ourselves to Mr. Śliwiński, who politely takes us into his care, and leads us straight to the guest rooms, and gives three of them to us – two as bedrooms, and the third, middle one, as a place to meet and eat. Within a quarter of an hour, two butlers under command of a soldier in uniform bring us hot tea, bread, butter, fresh brioches, and excellent gateaux secs on the finest English tableware. The degree to which the guest room in Antoniny are equipped for the maximum comfort of their guests can be testified to by the fact on the elegant desks, next to cases of various paper, envelopes, and postcards with Antoniny views, a guest can find a little cotton pillow with needles stuck in it, one threaded with a white thread, one with a black on – it’s a minute detail, but a testament to the excellent administration of the Antoniny palace.

Earl Józef Potocki – the owner of Antoniny, was not home, therefore a chance to see the inside of the palace circumvented us, but its outside appearance, the vast courtyard between the palace and stables, kept as clean as the floor of a ball room; an English park, rich in nature, and carefully and tastefully groomed; 157 saddle and cart horses, placed in luxurious stables, in which the exquisitely furnished drawing rooms encourage the visitor to indulge in an enjoyment of idleness. There are large coach houses, and in those, a few dozen various elegant carriages, a rich selection of harnesses for every purpose; a numerous stable and palace help, all dressed in tasteful liveries, made by the court tailors. There are packs of hounds, hundreds in numbers, excellently trained for par-force hunting; a beautifully looked-by pheasantry, and housing for all types of animals – in a few words, everything that you can see and touch in Antoniny creates a one, cohesive whole, and it is a whole that can only be created with the conjunction of: exquisite taste of the owner, a magnate’s wealth, the nature of a great Polish nobleman, a natural love for sport and hunting, a great organisational skill, the English accuracy and chic, French elegance, and Dutch cleanliness!

Antoniny lay at the bank of the Ikopot River, surrounded with vast forests, and due to the biting cold of the region, it used to be called ‘Chołodki’[25] by the Russian, and used to belong to the Lubomirski Princes; only Princess Marya Lubomirska gave it as a dowry to her husband, Prince Paweł Sanguszko. Princess Barbara Sanguszkowa of the Dunins, leased the Chołodki out to her sister, Antonina Duninówna. In memory of this lady’s long stay in Chołodki, it was renamed to Antoniny by her. What Antoniny[26] are today is due to their current owner, Earl Józef Potocki.

The Antoniny horse herd presents an undoubtedly rich material for wide hippological studies, since Earl Józef Potocki keeps the following horses: full blood English horses[27], hunters, pure blood Arabs[28], and Anglo-Arabs. When we visited the Antoniny palace stables, between 40 cart horses, there were 31 of their own breeding, while 9 were purchased in Paris and Vienna. Amongst 48 saddle horses, 29 represented Antoniny breeding, and there were 19 horses imported from France and England for par-force hunting. In the utility horse department, a very interesting picture exists, there were 76 horses bought in the southern governorships of the country and Russia, mainly purchased at fairs in Jarmolińce, Winnica, Berdyczów, and Białocerkwia[29]. They are meant for use and service of the palace in Antoniny, to send for guests and their servants, and the vast luggage some bring.

The director of the Antoniny herd is a Mr. Sokolnicki, who I owe the most heartfelt thanks for his above and beyond politeness in showing and explaining horses. On the first day by our arrival in Antoniny, we viewed the saddle and hunting horses – the imported hunters. There were as many as I mentioned above, 19, imported partially from Pau in France, and partly directly from England, Leicestershire predominantly. Beautiful, stout, deep and muscular, the horses were prepared for hunting in Leicestershire, on those plains with obstacles, mainly hedges; or in France, in Pau, on insidiously difficult terrain. Now, they hunt on the Wołyń steppes with ease, although they do happen to scale obstacles with ease, and they like doing so, taking on obstacles of various types.

Amongst the 29 saddle horses of Antoniny breeding, part of them comes from a Thoroughbred[30], “Loadstone”, from Pellegrino and Sellyvak, from original hunter mothers, or hunters from own raising; the second part are Antoniny Anglo-Arabs, stout horses, well-made and with beautiful form, coming from Antoniny Arab mares, and English Thoroughbreds: the aforementioned “Loadstone”, also from “Hulton” (of Galopin and Intruder), and by “Marshal-Saxe” (from Newminster and Berla). These horses, apart from the type of the “imported” horse, that often you have to pay so much for, do not differ in anything from imported hunters, as they have the same resilience and ability to scale obstacles as their hunting compatriots from France and England.

In the past, there were more hunting horses in the Antoniny stables, since the invited guests customarily saddled the horses of Earl Potocki; today, not so many are required – 48 were sufficient in the last season, since almost all of today’s guests of Antoniny bring their own hunters for the par-force hunts. And so, in the previous season, Prince Adam Lubomirski saddled his own “Flycather”, imported especially for the heavy weight of the prince, a fast hunting horse, capable of steeplechases; a “Tuch-menot” mare carried Earl Cezary Stadnicki, a par excellence hunting horse, a resilient hunter and weight-carrier; Mr. Jan Sobański rode on the “Halifax” (of Chislehurst and mare Marie), a horse distinguished on the race courses of Austria; Mr. Adam Sobański was riding the “Connaught”, an excellent hunter with a difficult temper; Earl J. Girzyczki had two horses: a half-blood “Naprzód”, a winner of several hunting runs, and “Lancelot”, a hunter tried under a male and female rider on hunts in England, Leicestershire, in Italy, in Pardubice and in Hungary. The Great Prince Borys[31] rode “Lancelot” most often, as he was the most comfortable for his large weight.

The ladies also hunted: Countess Augustowa and Countess Romanowa Potocka, as well as Countess Helena, the wife of the owner of Antoniny, all used last year’s par-forces, predominantly imported hunters. Amongst the ladies, two sisters stood out, who are also the wives of two brother: Countess Helena Radziwiłłowa Potocka, who while hunting with dogs on the Wołyń steppes had reached a very high class in riding – and Countess Romanowa Potocka from Łańcut, who is known for great skill in handling a horse and bravery in taking on obstacles, and is known not also from local hunts, but also from English hunts in Leicestershire. Last year’s autumn “hunting race”, in which the whole youth of the Antoniny guests took part, was led by Earl Karol Kinski, having put together with skill and finesse a 7km run, with serious obstacles of various types.

The herd of Antoniny English Thoroughbreds is currently composed of six mares, out of which three are of their own breeding, and three are not. While we were in Antoniny, there were 9 foals of the aforementioned race, with 3 fillies and 6 colts. Earl Józef Potocki first entered the racing arena in Austria in 1887, in Lviv. There, he came second, on his horse “Gentleman”. In the next year, three horses start in Lviv in Earl Potocki’s colours, namely: “Antonin”, “Gipsy”, and the aforementioned “Gentleman”, which carries his owner to the first prize.

In the years 1894 and 1895, Earl Józef Potocki takes part in races in Cracow, Lviv, Budapest and Vienna, and his three horses: “Satanella”, “Mon Espoir”, and “San Oscam” win 24790 crowns in this time. The largest part of those winnings was won by “Satanella” (offspring of Red’dear and Buccaneer), a mare of high class, excellent build, and unfaltering on the longer distances. Three Antoniny horses also run on Russian courses in 1896 with a greater degree success than in Cracow: “Belle Helene”, “Neptun” and “Błyskawica”.

Earl Józef Potocki withdraws from the list of racing stable owners, but in the same years he sends a one-year-old colt of his (offspring of Galtee Moree and Gond) for training in France, where the horse will be under the care of Coach Carter, and by spending two years training and racing in France, it will return as a three year old to take part in classic races.

When Mr. Kadish and Director Sokolnicki were presenting the excellent imported hunters to us, suddenly, we were struck by a sight so incredible and rare: in the company of a small, cute, white fox terrier, a creature was approaching us with a serious and silent stride…an African lion! It approached us, sniffed us with interest, and having acquainted with us, he started encouraging us to play with some strange African squatting! I have to admit openly, that this unexpected kindness and sympathy, as well as the naïve, frivolous play of the lion did not encourage me just yet, since I haven’t ever chased around a courtyard with a lion yet, however, apparently the fortune favours the brave, so wielding my umbrella I pretended that I wasn’t afraid of not only the lion, but of nothing at all!

The lion in question was brought to Antoniny by Earl Józef Potocki from his last hunting trip in Africa. It was found as a three day old kitten, somewhere in the region of Fashoda, between the Blue and White Niles. At first, it was fed from a milk bottle, and was surrounded by people from whom he only received kind care and caresses, so he is used to people to the degree that he gives an impression of a delicate, innocent, and kind creature, born in the Antoniny stables, not a real king of the African wilderness. His name is “Mamoo” as that is the sound he constantly makes, a sound so wistful as if he was demanding, reminding, and pleading that he is taken back to his mother, who is surely missing him somewhere far away, at the banks of the White Nile.

The herd of Antoniny Arab horses is composed of two sires: “Sułtan”, an original Arab, and “Tybet”, a horse of Antoniny breeding; as well as 38 mares, of which one is imported, and the rest were bred in the herd. When we saw the herd, there were 69 foals: 15 three year old mares, 5 two year old mares, 15 one year old mares; in the case of the colts: there were 12 three year olds, 14 two year olds, and 8 one year old colts. Therefore, there were 109 horses in the Antoniny Arab herd altogether.

The colts remain almost entirely at the “Zielona” stables, and that’s where Director Sokolnicki took us on the second day by our arrival in Antoniny. We travelled by an elegant carriage of Vienna craftmanship, drawn by four golden-bay, beautiful Arab mares. As soon as we departed from the palace courtyard, we instantly noticed what kind of horses are pulling our carriage, and what kind of coach driver we had, as instantly it was apparent that the four horses, four reins, the carriage, and the two hands of the driver were a subtle whole.

From the colts shown to us in Zielona, the following stuck in my mind as well-made horses, noble, and beautiful. Amongst the 3 year olds:

  • Bay “Kadran” – by Priam and mare Kadranka, very good and noble
  • Dark bay “Pekin” – by Tybet and mare Violetta
  • Chestnut, bald “Tyftyk” – better than Pekin
  • Bay with a star: “Wisłok” – by Tybet and mare Warta – good and pretty.

Amongst the 2 year olds:

  • Bald, dark bay “Albano” – very pretty and noble, with a cute head and beautiful neck; son of Abu-Argub (who we mentioned when writing about Sławuta) and mare Zaryfka
  • Dark bay “Romulus” – by Tybet and mare Janczarka – with a build perhaps more reminiscent of an Anglo-Arab, but very good and aesthetically very pleasing
  • A black, bald, “Menelik” – by Abu-Argub and mare Malwina, very good and noble.

Amongst the 1 year olds:

  • An excellent, grizzled grey “Epos” – by Tybet and mare Nowella
  • “Consul”, grizzled grey with a small star, by Tybet and mare Aga – just as good as Epos
  • A bay, bald “Hassan” – by Tybet and mare Kadranka, well built, and above all, very noble

The male offspring presents itself in a very positive manner, it is boney, deep, with strong upper tie-ins, as well as noble; most of the colts make an impression that they will grow to be excellent sires, or beautiful, practical horses. Almost all of them were very grown for an Arab horse, muscular and firm, which should be ascribed to the abundance of feed, and the fact that in the winter they have to run around the arenas adjacent to the stables for a few hours a day, and in the summer, chase around steppe and forest pastures all day long.

Zielona is approximately 8 kilometres from Antoniny, and when returning, we went straight to the Antoniny stud far, which is located behind the palace park, over the river, on a hill. The enormous white buildings in which the older horses are placed, the internal arrangement of the stables, the paddocks, the fenced arenas in the courtyards, are all thought out for maximum practicality and well made, and in this huge complex, the exemplary cleanliness is most impressive.

We passed through an elegant veranda, and entered the first building on the right, in which there are four sires in four boxes: two for the English, Hunter, and Anglo-Arab herd, and two for the Arab herd. On the right hand side stand “Tybet” and “Hulton”, on the left stand “Marshal-Saxe” and “Sułtan”, two beautiful, but very separate types for two different directions of breeding.

The dark bay “Hulton” was born in 1891 from Galopin and mare Intruder, 167.5 cm tall, with a 20 cm thick shin. He was purchased for the Antoniny herd in the Emperor’s stables in Vienna. He impresses with the strength of his build, an excellent back, depth of his chest cavity, the bone, the short shin, and the leg stance. Looking at him, you can see a powerful warrior for the racing arenas.

“Marshal-Saxe” is bay, born in 1892, from Newminster and mare Beryl, bought in England. A bigger horse than Hulton, it is 173.5 cm tall, and with a thicker shin, since it is 21.5 cm. The impression that “Marshal-Saxe” makes is very positive: he is huge, long, with beautiful upper lines, and a wide, powerful rear.

If someone hasn’t seen a first class English Thoroughbred, and has only seen such a horse at second and third rate racetracks, he might say that Thoroughbreds are narrow horses, long, on tall and thin legs, only capable of a fast sprint over a short distance. This person should see “Marshal-Saxe”, and they will surely change their mind. These days there are many confused and muddied beliefs about Thoroughbreds. A testament to this can be the case of one such “horse lover”, whom I had the pleasure to watch inspect a horse for half an hour at the estate of Princess Pless. The horse was purchased for Countess Maria Branicka’s herd in Białocerkwia, a full blood[32] stallion “Eglamor”, by Thurio and mare Blair-Brae, by Blair-Athol out of mare Molly-Correw, by Wild-Dayrelb – and this gentleman was convinced that Eglamor was a product of crossing a Norfolk with a Arab mare! Perhaps this is only a compliment for Eglamor, illustrating his above average strong and thick build, combined with the beautiful form of an oriental horse.

Between the Arab sires, one is of their own breeding, that being “Tybet”, and the other, “Sułtan”, is an imported horse. “Tybet” is a chestnut, 163 cm tall, born in the Antoniny herd in 1892 by Zaryf (Original Arab) and mare Chiwa, by original Arab Iamri and mare Łatka, by Iscender Basza, by original Arab Batran Aga. Tybet is a strong, well tied together horse, with a wide chest and such a back, wide, spreading ribs, with a strong, dry and wide 20 cm shin. Although the withers is not very prominent, his whole front is excellent, and the whole makes a horse that beautiful in the full meaning of that word, strong, practical, and noble horse, with an energetic, fiery and yet calm temper of an Arab.

The other is “Sułtan”, a balding chestnut with white legs, 156 cm tall, the son of Seglavi and Hemdani-Iemry, born in the sultan’s herd in, according to our calculations, 1895; contrary to the nonsensical pedigree made for him in Baghdad. Sułtan was purchased by Earl Józef Potocki in the sultan’s stables, from Fuad-Bey-Muzaffer-Czajkowski, the inspector of herds of the Ottoman Empire.

Sułtan’s bone has to as hard as an elephant’s tooth, this is visible through the skin; the neck is long, lofty, and flexible, with a small and pretty head, it joins with a prominent withers and a strong spine, which rests on a strong and wide front, wide, prominent ribs and huge back side; we measured the front legs at 19 cm just under the knee, the long and wide bones supporting the excellent front together with the shoulder blade; the rear legs are strong and set normally, and appear to push the whole body forward; the eyes are large, moist, and smart, they look at humans with an understanding. The small, light ears set above the wide forehead, stand like leaves of lily, and dart back and forward to wherever the sound is coming from, as if they were listened to what is said about Sułtan.

The body is covered in short, golden, glossy hair, with strange whirls; the tail is well set, long and rich in beautiful weaves; the cottony mane falls on the swan-like neck. Sułtan is an image of an aesthetically beautiful horse, and a kind creature. This image of the oriental horse, the most noble of all, even though is leaving the progressive breeding of the West, will never lose its friends and fans – since it is too beautiful, too familiar.

The first mare that was shown to us in the Antoniny stud farm, was the white “Kahejlanka”, purchased in 1897 from the Arabs, typical and very beautiful; with prominent withers and neck, but I will not describe her further, since she came to Wołyń from Arabia as a mare – and not a dam, since she does not give birth at all, and if she does, it is to a dead foal. From the more beautiful mares, I will mention:

  • The light grizzled grey “Jaskółka (Dam of Skowronek)” – born in 1891 – by the famous Rymnik and mare Zuzula – also from Sławuta breeding
  • A very beautiful seven year old chestnut, “Grenade” – by Zaryf and mare Antylopa
  • A white, very typical “Cecore” – by original Arab Obejan and mare Mozaika – by the Sławuta original Arab Dewrisz and mare Dziuba, by original Arab Hadudy and mare Manuzela, by original Arab Abuchejl and mare Garena – born in 1893
  • A beautiful, typical, noble, and yet strong and thick “Dżalma” – offspring of Obejan and mare Hita – by Iamry and mare Lutka, by Iskander Basza and mare Armida.
  • Grizzled grey “Legende”, by Obejan and mare Drucha
  • “Palmire” – bay, bald, with white legs, sister of Dżalma
  • A chestnut, perhaps less typical, but still excellent “Al-Puchare” – by Zoryf and mare Antylopa
  • An 11 year old “Nerisse” – by Palatyn, by original Arab Mahomet-El-Hassan and mare Drucha, by Meleschan and mare Iues, by Abuhejl and mare Burzymska, by Benisar. “Nerisse” has a step-sister of the same age by her sire, a bay “Lore”, by Palatyn and mare Kamelia, by Mahomet-El-Hassan and mare Baloda, by Abuhejl and mare Dora, by Meleschan and mare Sybilla, by Hojny, by Batran-Aga and mare Gida, by Obejan and mare Burzymska. They are both typical, noble, and pretty. When these two are brought out, they start playing with each other, touching noses, grabbing the muzzles, manes, withers, and front legs. Their motions are aesthetic, agile, deft and full of charm. Their clever, large, sparkly eyes, cottony manes and tails, the coats: one dark, the other white – all of this gave inspiration for a picture by Juliusz Kossak!

The most beautiful of the beautiful, “Arabela” bid farewell to us. She was born by Pharaon and mare Precioza, by Jamry and mare Lutka, by Iscander Basza and mare Armida. She is dark bay, born in Antoniny in 1886, gaining a gold medal at the exhibition in Saint Petersburg in 1893. By the exhibition, she was the saddle horse for the Russian Empress for several years, and was later bought for the Antoniny herd as a dam.

Amongst the offspring, most of it comes from the aforementioned “Tybet”, and then by the Antoniny stallion, “Priam”, the son of original Arab Obejan Szarak and mare Preciosa. There are a few descendants of the original Arab Abu-Argub, as well as Alikar, their own bred stallion. The offspring of “Priam” is perhaps less noble, with necks less lofty and beautiful than the progeny of Tybet. The offspring of Abu-Argub can be observed to have type and class; the one year old foal will be perhaps less grown than those in the Chrestówka herd, but the two year olds make an impression of grown and well formed horses, which is a result of excellent and intensive feeding.

Antoniny sell horses for a total sum of 15 to 18 thousand rubles each year, all at high prices, mostly to Petersburg, Warsaw, Kiev and Moscow, where they enjoy a very good reputation as saddle horses. Amongst the Antoniny sires sold is the black-bay “Mohort”, now in Galicia, which was initially used for hunting in Łańcut by Earl Roman Potocki, the brother of the owner of the Antoniny herd. From Łańcut, Mohort was purchased by the emperor’s herd in Radowiec, and currently, he and a Chrestówka stallion, “Attyk” are sires in the Arab herd of Mr. Longin-Łobos in Taurów. The pedigree of Mohort is as follows.

“Mohort”, a black bay stallion born in Antoniny, in 1884 by Pharaon (original Arab), by Ibu-Ed-Derri and mare Rosalin, by Kohejlan Dżus and mare Gomussa, from the generation Seglavi-Dżedran from Middle Arabia, purchased from the Sebaa-Anazech Arab tribe when he was two years old, rewarded with the first prize at a horse exhibition in Islington, out of Preciosa Nr. 207, by original Arab Jamri and mare Łatka No 102, by Iscender-Basza (by original Arab Batran-Aga), out of mare Gida No 45, by Obejan (by Szumka II, by original Arab Hejlan), out of mare Burzymska II No 437, by Kamarys (by original Arab Dżelfi), out of Burzymska I No 332, by Benisar (original Arab).

The herd of the Antoniny Arab horses is a part and fragment of the Chrestówka-Sławuta herd, and the fragmentation of these herd happened in 1845 in the following manner: Prince Roman Sanguszko, the older brother of Prince Władysław, father of Prince Roman, the current owner of Sławuta and Prince Eustachy, the owner of the Tarnów county, left on daughter, Maria. Maria married Earl Alfred Potocki, the Łańcut heir, and the father of Earl Józef Potocki, the current owner of Antoniny. In the Sanguszko clan there was a tradition of keeping the wealth in the hands of the males, and yet the old Prince Roman made his only daughter Maria the administrator of the entire fortune before his death. A few years by his death, in line with the last will, the split of the fortune between Princess Maria and Prince Roman, the current owner of Sławuta, occurred. The Antoniny and Szepetówka[33] estates became the possessions of Princess Maria, who when getting married, brought them as a dowry for her husband, Earl Alfred Potocki.

The split of the horse herd happened in the following manner. 295 horses remained in the Chrestówka herd: 137 mares, 87 fillies, and 71 colts. Princess Maria received 104 horses for Antoniny: 46 mares, 29 fillies, and 29 colts.[34] The year 1845 therefore marks the beginning of an age in the Antoniny Arab herd. The differences that can be noticed between the Sławuta and Antoniny horse should probably be ascribed to the fact that with a less numerous herd in Antoniny, it is easier to accurately choose individuals for breeding than in Chrestówka, resulting in a stronger and stouter horse. Although when choosing Arab mares for dams, the most important factors are their origin, nobility, and beauty of their forms, however it is undoubtedly important from a breeding standpoint that these mares go through difficult trials, as they have to endure lengthy hunts under a saddle, or go through difficult training as carriage horses. The incredibly intensive feeding from young, great hygiene, and appropriate funds spent on securing first rate sires complete the process in the Antoniny Arab stud farm.

In Antoniny, imported sires are usually used for breeding, and their own horses, such as Tybet and Priam only cover the Antoniny mares in special, individual cases. While the mares that came from Chrestówka to Antoniny during the herd split were products of stallions imported to Sławuta directly from the East, currently, imported Arab sires make their way to the Antoniny herd, mainly through England. Antoniny have imported a sizeable number of Arab stallions since 1845, and the most important sires in this stud farm were:

  • “Benisar” – original Arab imported in 1847
  • “Abucheil” – original Arab imported in 1854
  • “Mahomet-El-Hassan” – original Arab imported in 1859
  • “Jamri” – original Arab imported in his mother’s womb in 1867
  • “Meleschan”- original Arab imported in 1872
  • “Ibu-Ed-Derri” – made his way to the Antoniny herd in 1866 (as per Mohort’s pedigree)
  • “Hussar” – initially gifted to the Prince of Wales, then purchased in 1878 by Earl Potocki
  • “Seglavi-Kadran” – original Arab imported in 1879
  • “Pharaon” – original Arab imported in 1882
  • Black “Achmet” – bred in Białocerkwia out of Figurantka, by original Arab Farhan, purchased for the Antoniny herd in 1886
  • “Obejan-Szarak” – called “Euclid” in Antoniny, a bay original Nedjd Arab born in Arabia in 1882, purchased by Earl Potocki in Calcutta in 1890 from Lord William Beresford
  • Finally, the above mentioned chestnut “Sułtan” – purchased in Istanbul

If we compare the purity of blood[35] of the Arab horses of the Chrestówka herd, and the Sławuta herd of which the Antoniny herd is a fragment – with Arab horses in Galicia, located in the Jezupolskie, Jabłonowskie, Piwodzkie herds and also in Izydorówka and Taurów – then the latter have the upper hand in terms of the purity of blood. This is because while the herds of Sławuta and Antoniny have been composed of a very mixed breeding material[36], with high value nevertheless, they were still local horses[37], who were only ennobled with sires imported from the East. Meanwhile, the horses in Jezupol, Jabłonów, Piwoda, Izydorówka and Taurów[38] are descendants of only the purest blood[39], since they come from horses that were brought directly from Arabia to the Jarczowce[40] herd by Earl Juliusz Dzieduszycki.

Earl Juliusz Dzieduszycki, son of Kajetan, and descendant of the old clan of Dzieduszyckis, who settled in the Russian province for centuries. They loved their Podole steppes with their whole hearts, and often at the cost of life defended them for years from pagan raids. Juliusz, under the spell of tales about Emir Rzewuski, takes a few Jarczowce Cossacks with him to the East, runs across the desert of Arabia inaccessible to Christians, beats all the obstacles in buying horses in the desert, and brings back a transport of stallions and mares so valuable, that later on, “Tuchmen” and “Ben-Azet” who were purchased by the Austrian government, have been reproducing in the government stables so well that they have families of horses named by them. The first went to Radowce[41] in the Bukovina region, and became the sire of the “Stamm Tuchmen” generation. The latter went to Lipica near Trieste, and is producing the “Stamm Ben-Azet” generation until this day. The offspring of “Bagdad”, for example – who finished his life in Jarczowce[42] by 35 years – has spread all across the expanse of Polish lands, and is so highly valued that every nobleman had to have at least one son or grandson of “Bagdad” in his stables!

Earl Juliusz Dzieduszycki was married to Zofia Bobrówna – the daughter of the Marshall of the Wołyń gentry. He passed away without children in Lviv, in 1884. The Jarczowce herd of the purest Arabs[43] was split by his death between the stables of the Dzieduszycki family, between the following family members:

  • His Excellency Wojciech Dzieduszycki – in Jezupol[44]
  • Princess Florentyna Czartoryska, née Dzieduszycka – in Jabłonów
  • Prince Czartoryski, married to Countess Dzieduszycka – in Pełkinie
  • Earl Edmund Dzieduszycki – in Izydorówka
  • Mr. Longin-Łobos, who doesn’t belong to the Dzieduszycki family – in Taurów

These horses come from three mares that Earl Juliusz Dzieduszycki, may God rest his soul, brought back in 1845 to Jarczowce from the heights of the Nejd, namely:

  • “Sahara” – from the Neżdi-Kohejlan strain
  • “Mlecha” – from the same strain as Sahara
  • Gazella” – from the Anaze-Kohejl-Agjus strain.

Therefore, it could be said that the Dzieduszycki horses are Arab horses indeed! Therefore, a horse such as “Yasri” – by the Thoroughbred “Verbum nobile” (by King-Alfons, by Cambuscan), out of “Sapho” (out of Frou-Frou, imported steeplechaser from England) – is a stranger, even though he ran in racing arenas with great success several times, even coming first on two occasions. And yet, such a “Yasri” is an outsider in the stable of Earl Dzieduszycki – his blood, his bone, his beauty and characteristics, type and tradition – is not that of the “Dzieduszycki horses!”

In this stable of Earl Dzieduszycki, I myself prefer his “Gazella Izydorówka”, by Seglavi out of Gazella III, by Hadudi out of Gazella II, by Kohejlan out of Gazella, imported from the wild – but it is a great shame that the offspring of this Gazella is a product of an English Thoroughbred, “Skladerock”! In Jezupol, I prefer the grey “Kukułka”, born in 1886 in the Jarczowce stables, by El-Kibir out of Kitka; I like the chestnut “Bibi” from the “Sahara” family, and finally the grey “Poziomka” – born in Jarczowce in 1884. In the Pełkinie herd, at the estate of Earl Witold Czartoryski, I like the grey “Bona” and the black-bay “Gazella”, by Hindostan out of Gazella, by El-Delemi, both raised in the Jarczowce stable by Earl Juliusz Dzieduszycki.

At the estate of Princess Czartoryska – in her Jabłonów herd – I prefer the golden bay “Krzyżyk”, of the purest Arab blood[45] of his parents, grandparents, and grand-grandparents. I like “Dagmara” – grey with tiny brown spots – born in Jarczowce in 1886 by Krzyżyk out of Dagmara; I like the grey “Lutka” and “Thuja” – granddaughters of Hindostan, and the granddaughters of “Mlecha”. These are the types and images of those noble, beautiful “Dzieduszycki horses” that are so rich with positive characteristics. They remind me of the memorable characters and moments – for example of when Earl Juliusz Dzieduszycki, the son of Podole steppes, the millionaire, expert of Western culture – ‘le premier éleveur de mon empire’ – as the Emperor Franz Joseph used to call him – was showing off his “Azet”, “Feruch-Han”, “El-Delemi”, his “Sahara”, “Mlecha”, “Gazella”, “Ślepka” in the Jarczowce stables. It reminds me of our own Polish Vernet – Juliusz Kossak – sketching the most beautiful of them with his still young hand, and Wincenty Pol putting together his beautiful rhymes. It reminds me of Prince Roman Sanguszko, with his knightly posture, returning from the mines of Caucasus, and tracking and analysing each of the horse’s motions with the keen eye of an expert, critic, and horse lover. It reminds me of Nereusz Horowski, a regular guest and friend of the Jarczowce estate, reminiscing on the bloody and difficult war endured within the lines of wistful poetry, sometimes hitting the joyful notes, with a light and able rhyme.

If a long journey was not ahead of us right now – to Ukraine – we would happily have stayed longer in the beautiful Antoniny, where we enjoyed ourselves so much. However, our time was limited – and the duty bestowed upon us by the committee was calling upon us! So, we bid farewell to Mr. Śliwiński and Director Sokolnicki, thanking these gentlemen for their incredible kindness and politeness; we bid farewell to the help, stable hands, and the horses, even Mamoo gives us his enormous paw to shake – and we enter the comfortable, half-covered carriage – lined with fluffy sheep skins. The bells have rung and the four carriage horses pulled us with their long strides – from the palace courtyard of the excellent Antoniny residence – we passed the village, turned right, crossed the Ikopeti river, where the fishermen were pulling out fish en masse, and joined onto a wide road that will take us to Szepetówka, approximately 58 kilometres from Antoniny.

These fields, these unsearched regions, meadows and ravines, the long strips of dark forest – all have enchanted me and had me under their spell. The whole landscape was strangely serious, dark, as if the artist – a painter perhaps – only used emerald green, sepia, and black to paint this picture. To me, it appeared delightful, wide, and limitless, and to my eyes – used to small, sandy, and meagre fields of Wielkopolska, and the tight, narrow, beaten roads there – this brilliant, dark expanse on the way from Antoniny to Szepetówka was an unfamiliar experience.

Through the misty air, being swung by the delicate blows of the wind, a vast plain was visible, drowning in the dark and solemn limits of the horizon – as far as the eye could see, there was no tree, no village – only somewhere in the distance, in the place where the sun was meant to set, a long, dark strip of forest stretches over the horizon. The tall, darkened sticks of saltbushes and thistles stood broodingly, already crunched by the frost, over the expanses – some of which were covered by the brown-green stretches of wheat, others, already ploughed, run away from the road with strips of black soil; others marked with stubble of collected wheat.

These enormous black regions, through which you ride for miles, these dark fields, meadows, ponds, ravines and forests, all belong to villages and folwarks that you sometimes pass through on the road, and the Pilawy crest on all the gates indicates that the owner of all of this is Earl Potocki. At the time of writing this, “Czas Krakowski” reports a very sad accident that occurred on the 21st of February of this year during a hunt in Nieświeże. It was a boar hunt, and Earl Józef Potocki, the owner of the Antoniny county, having shot a boar, left his post to follow the wounded the animal – he paid for this carelessness dearly, as in the same moment Prince A. Radziwiłł took a shot, and the large bullet hit and crushed the left femur of Earl Potocki just above the knee. The Earl hunted so many times in the jungles of India and Africa for lions, tigers and elephants – without incident.

The entirety of the Earl Potocki’s county is split between 4 keys, namely: antoniński, szepetowecki, piszczowski and smołdyrowski.

  1. “Czystości krwi” is translated as of purity of blood throughout this document.
  2. “Materiał hodowlany bardzo mieszany” means very mixed breeding material
  3. “Miejscowych koni” means local horses, pertaining to the closest area.
  4. Yezupil (Ukraine), Jabłonów, Piwoda, Сидорівка (Ukraine), Taurów.
  5. “Krwi najczystszej” means purest blood.
  6. Ярчівці, Ukraine.
  7. In 1891, Poland was not a sovereign country. In 1795, in the Third Partition of Poland, the Poland-Lithuania Commonwealth was split between Prussia, Austria and Russia. Before 1772, Wołyń, was part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. After Poland regained independence in 1918 and finally reformed its borders in 1923, Wołyń was once again Polish territory. After the Second World War, these lands became territory of the Soviet Union, and later, Ukraine.
  8. Large, famous and powerful clans of the 17th and 18th centuries: Wiśniowiecki was the King of Poland between 1669 and 1673; Wyhowski was the bishop of Łuck 1703 – 1714.
  9. Folwark is a Polish word for a large primarily serfdom-based farm or agricultural enterprise.
  10. “Szlachetny” is translated as noble throughout this document. It means noble, precious or fine.
  11. Original note: “Dessiatin” – approximately Austrian Morgen.
  12. “A dessiatin or desyatina (Russian: десятина) was a land measurement used in tsarist Russia. A dessiatin is equal to 2.702 English acres or about 10,900 square metres.
  13. A Magdeburg morgen, also known as the Prussian morgen, was 25.5 acres, or approximately 0.25 hectare.
  14. “Uszlachetniania” means enrichment; the process of making something more noble, precious, refined.
  15. Jan Chryzostom Pasek (1636 – 1701) Polish nobleman and writer during the times of the Polish Lithuanian Commonwealth.
  16. “Voivode” is a term for a regional ruler of Poland
  17. “Skarogniady” means dark bay.
  18. Ankara, Turkey.
  19. “Arabsko-perski” means Arab-Persian.
  20. “Inssuf” could also be spelled Jussuf.
  21. “Hreczkowata” means grey, sprinkled with brown spots.
  22. Original French passage: ‘L’etalon de six ans Olgierd, gris pommelé et la jument grise Melpoména du haras du prince Romain Sanguszko, sont tous les deux de pur sang arabe. Olgierd, par Antar et Broumana du pays de Nejdi; Melpoména par Achmet-Ejub et Trychina de pure race Seglavi. Le beau type et les belles allures de ces cheveaux attestent la pureté de leur origine orientale. Leurs members vigoureusement muscles, sont d’une sécheresse extraordinaire.’
  23. The term “Dto” in the table below is means “Ditto” or “as above.”
  24. “Uszlachetniony” is translated as ennobled throughout this document.
  25. “Chołodki” is a word stemming from cold or – “chłód” in Polish.
  26. Antoniny is plural.
  27. “Angielskie pełnej krwi” means “English full blood”
  28. “Arabskie, czystej krwi” means “Arab, pure blood”
  29. Yarmolyntsi, Vinnytsia, Berdychiv, Bila Tserkva.
  30. “Vollblut” is the German word for Thoroughbred and it is translated this way throughout this document.
  31. Borys Władymirowicz Romanow, a Russian Prince.
  32. “Pełnej krwi” means full blood.
  33. Shepetivka Raion.
  34. It is interesting to note that about ¾ of the herd went to Roman Sanuszko Jr. at Chrestówka and ¼ of the herd went to his cousin Maria Sanguszko who married Alfred Jozef Potocki of Antoniny.
  35. “Czystości krwi” is translated as of purity of blood throughout this document.
  36. “Materiał hodowlany bardzo mieszany” means very mixed breeding material
  37. “Miejscowych koni” means local horses, pertaining to the closest area.
  38. Yezupil (Ukraine), Jabłonów, Piwoda, Сидорівка (Ukraine), Taurów.
  39. “Krwi najczystszej” means purest blood.
  40. Ярчівці, Ukraine.
  41. Rădăuți, Romania.
  42. Ярчівці, Ukraine.
  43. “Najczystszej wody” literally translates as of the cleanest water meaning the most pure or unadulterated.
  44. Yezupil.
  45. “Najczysztszej krwi Arab” means an Arab of the purest blood.
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