Section 177, Historical and hippological events of the 17th century: The Polish horse, Chapter 9, The general history of the horse, Historya Powszechna Konia, Vol II, 1874, Poznań, pages 248-267. By Earl Maryan Czapski.
Edited by Lyman Doyle. Translated from Polish by David Rygielski.
Czapski’s work was influential and is widely referenced by later authors. It was also translated into German.
Czapski mentions the Slawuta herd bred by the Sanguszko family and describes a high level herd of mixed local origin improved by Arab stallions: “The herd of the Sanguszko princes, spread over the various estates of this clan, but mainly in Zasławie – is the same herd of the medieval times, the origin of which reaches very far back in history, having supplied knights and fighters with capable, excellent horses for centuries now. The sons of this clan always supplied the best horses for defense of the country….This herd has been continually refreshed by the finest sons of the desert, giving it all the characteristics of almost entirely pure Arab blood.”
The translation follows:
Under the protection of the laws of old Poland, and with the common admiration for horses; everyone kept horses. Some “were eaten by their horses” – many lost their wealth through failures in horse keeping. However, they didn’t seems to be discouraged by their failures, even though the old proverb advised: “He who does not ride a horse, will not fall off it”. The admiration and love for horses was much stronger, and nobody wanted to hear that advice, and everyone preferred to “fall if I have to fall, as long as I fall from a good horse”. Everyone, from the kings, down to minor nobility, kept horses. Naruszewicz mentions the herds of Bolesław Krzywousty in the year 1133, and also those that Kazimierz Wielki established in Greater Poland. Amongst private herds in the Piast age, one herd stood out: The herd of the Archbishop of Gniezno. However, it was destroyed by bandits. The herd of the Lekneński townfolk comes from the same age. It was captured by Wojtek the Castellan of Kujawy, and Grzymała from Oleśnica during the country’s turmoil in the pre-Jadwiga age. When the townsfolk gave chase to the robbers, they fell into a trap themselves, had to turn back and be chased instead, and led their pursuers straight into the town, which was turned into dust. The horses of Przecław Jakuszowic from Gołuchów were the main encouragement for the assault, robbery, and rape that Dobiesław from Gołańcza and his brothers committed to get it. In Lithuania, there was a precious herd of the Great Prince, that Kiejstut returned to King Jagiełło after he was dethroned in the year 1381. The Witold herds supplied him with 10,000 saddle horses at a time for his army.
In the Teutonic Knights sources, there are mentions of the a herd of the Great Prince before the year 1367, and Wigant writes: The Žemaitukas herd of the Great Princes had 4000 horses in the year 1379. Despite the incredible management that the military herd of the Order of the Teutonic Knights had; despite the necessity for constant offering of hippological gifts to the allies of the Order; despite the amazing accuracy of the records of the Order, where not even a few pennies are missing; despite the fact that these sources survived very well – the first mention of the Teuton herd only appears in 1376, a mention of a herd of 50 mares (Kobelln vel Stutt-Sprinze) and two stallions. Kiejstut was on his way to Neman to strike a deal with the Marshall of the Order, Schinde-Kopf, and went into Chernyakhovsk, took the herd, and fifty Teuton prisoners of war. The Lithuanians left on the Teuton horses. The Teuton commander recognized his own saddle horse under Kiejstut. “I never expected” complained the Teuton “to see the king on such a fine horse.” Kiejstut replied with a smile: “Such are the times.”
At the very beginning of the 15th century, some princess Maryna Trabska lived in Lithuania, who left a sizeable inheritance to her grandson, Olbrycht Marcinowicz Gastold, the Troki governor. He inherited the Traby estate, and a large herd of horses in the year 1490. By this time, the Teutons kept many herd on their folwarks, which they split into two types: herds of large horses, surely Friesian, the blood of which comprises the main basis for the Prussian and the Pomorze horses, stemming from the battle horses of the Teutonic Order (Streitross); and herds of small Žemaitukas horses, mainly called “Swejkis” – used for various work. This horse wouldn’t be seen under a knight. Their characteristics confined them to the plow, to transporting various goods that the Order traded, to carry mail, to help with fishing, and other general work wherever needed, also by the seaside (Strand-Swejkis). These were durable horses, related to the Hesters that were famous in Lithuania in this age. Their purely Lithuanian name, denoting a strong and healthy horse (swejkis means healthy in Lithuanian), is not of German origin, as Dr. Toppen is wrongly trying to prove, writing in his work on horse breeding in Prussia that the word “sweikis” comes from the old German term “Swajga” (livestock diary). The amount of battle horses that the Teutonic Knights kept was three times larger than the number of the members of the Order itself. Every member had three warhorses, apart from the commanders, who had five. There was a significantly larger number of Swiejkis In the Prussian regions.
The horses of Casimir IV Jagiellon must have been the finest, if Cantarini who was returning from Persia, where he must have seen the most excellent horses from the East, was full of praise for the horses of the Polish king.
King Sigismund II Augustus had a fine and rich herd in Knyszyn. Rugieri ascribed the King’s extremely strong preference for staying at this estate often to his love of the herd. The King was said to like his horses so much, that It was very rare that someone received the honor of being bestowed with a horse as a present, even though that the number of horses was 2000 in 1560, and 3000 in 1565. Henry III benefited from the management by his predecessor, riding on a black mare of the royal herd. An instruction published in the year 1558 pertaining to breeding in economic estates, contains a mention that progressively larger herds are needed in order for the lofty horse prices to fall. There is no doubt that this practice was a healthier approach than the ban on exporting Polish horses abroad, which killed all hope of hippological development in the country. During the life of Sigismund the Old, Sigismund II lived in Lithuania, and according to the statements of Stanisław Górski, the Canon of Kraków, received such a large number of horses that their upkeep consumed 400 bushels of oat a day. From this, one can extrapolate that the King’s stables held around 3500 horses. After the death of the monarch, 1228 horses and 1 mule remained.
A detailed list of the horses remaining after Sigismund Augustus’ death in his stables:
120 Mail horses
24 Young Friesians
19 Spanish stallions
30 Hunting horses
28 Pacing horses
48 Small young Žemaitukas-type horses
40 horses for sale
Teams of horses:
64 Teams of six – 384
2 Teams of eight – 16
6 Teams of four – 24
1 Team of five – 4
2 Teams of six, 2 Teams of 5 from Gerar (? – only reference that could be found for Gerar is an ancient town in the Bible, but I this most likely not the right reference)
406 young horses in Słonim with Mr. Kowalski
2 young horses at the new estate of Mr. Scypion
These herds pastured on the lush pastured of Buczacz, and were so numerous, so excellent and so popular that a phrase “Equus Buczaciorum gregis” was coined denoting great capability and type. The herd of the Ostrogski princes was contemporary to the Buczacki herd. After the death of Janusz Ostrogski, the Kraków Castellan, and the Governor of Bohuslav, Czerkasy, Bila Tserkva, Kaniv, Pereiaslav and Włodzimierz in the year 1620, the heard had 700 saddle horses and 4000 broodmares.
The Princess Marya Kurbska, of the Holszański house, divorced her husband and demanded the return of two herd, the Dąbrowickie composed of 296 horses and the Błotnickie, 235 horses.
During this time, the Aksaks had several fine herds in the Ukraine, that is in Motowidłówka and Hulaniki. Catherine Aksakowa, the wife of the Governor and the Judge of Kiev, raised a complaint about her stepsons after her husband’s death – for the looting of Hulaniki, and in the register of taken wealth, the first item of order is the Hulaniki herd of 280 horses, which she valued at 20,000 złoty. Jan Aksak, secured his daughter, and wrote in his will “Mr. Stefan Aksak is to give her 4 grizzled grey four year olds and make a fine carriage for her, and has to give her 12 mares, 6 with her foals, and 6 without.
The herds belonging to the Chodkiewicz family were also famous in the Polish kingdom. The military commander kept a sizeable herd of fine horses in the Lachowieckie estate in Black Ruthenia. Correspondence exists between the commander, and Kamieński, the quartermaster, in which evidence can be found that even though the times were calm, the thoughts of the fighters were with the Lachowiecke herd. In almost every letter of this correspondence, there is a mention or an order that the quartermaster had to fulfil. We can find thins like this: “The horses deteriorated, a few dropped dead before reaching the camp.” – or – “In Wiazma, it is harder day by day. The winter was harsh, some horses died. The times are such that even the men are on the verge of dying from the cold” – or – “We need horses. They keep dropping dead in the camp. The hetman stable is also completely empty. Not only those brought by Maltin died, but even my bay mares. Send the horses to Jarosław. I don’t want a different coat, only the dapple-grey, and young and wondrous.” – or – “Moscow decimated the rest of our horses. I have to buy at least a few horses for the carts, and burn the rest of the carts. I will have to drag food to the capital with cattle carts.” And so on.
Often the Lachowieckie herd wasn’t sufficient for the personal needs of the commander, and he ordered to buy more. From Wiazma, he sent such an order to Kamieński: “We need reliable horses. Send Mr. Szczawiński to Prussia to bring down five or six carts.” At the end of the war, and after the war, the need for purchasing horses was more marked in the commander’s letters, since the war thinned out the herd. When the commander was already thinking about returning home, travelling to Warsaw, and getting his daughter married off, he also considered the herd to be too small, and orders horses to be purchased. From a camp under Moscow he writes: “I remind you about the horses, so that when I return, I have something to ride out on. Make a cart team from the foals.” From Lachowicz, he writes: “Make an effort to find wondrous saddle horses, ask Ogiński for the grizzled grey ones – he’s getting married, maybe he won’t sell now, but make sure I get them after the wedding. When you go to Królewiec, try to choose a few teams of Friesians for the carts. We don’t have them in our stable anymore, and I will need them for myself and for Anusia. Don’t pay much regard, black, grey or bay, as long as they are healthy, big, and not too heavy, and still young. Dye the saddle horses for Miss Anna, and leave mine in Niemieża, as they were disgracefully exprensive.” Kamieński keeps sending more and more horses, but the commander is never satisfied. He writes back to Wiazma: “I send three teams with Maltin. I would not only not trust Wnuszek with such things, I would not trust him with my worst saddle horse, as he’d be sure to steal it.” – The previous passage shows that even Maltin didn’t do a great job. Kamieński wrote to Możajsk, to the commander, once again: “Two teams of six Žemaitukas, and a third team of four were sent to the camp with Krzeczewski”. In another letter, he writes: “I’m making efforts to replace the horses taken by Moscow. It will be hard, there aren’t markets in Podole anymore”.
In a later letter, he writes: “I send the young horses to Warsaw, grey ones for your highness, you will not another horse as fine in all of Ukraine. Mr. Kłodziński died, leaving his cattle, horses, and arms to your highness. So, I will also send the grey horses left behind by Mr. Kłodziński.” – In a time of need, the commander found help in the herd of his brother, the Governor of Troki, whose horses were just as famous if not more than the commander’s. The letter sent by the commander’s wife to Kamieński can be seen as a testament to the Governor’s willingness to help. – “Make every effort to get the best saddle horses for his highness. Mr. Borzymowski brought many horses from Podole. Let Mr. Zdzitowiecki go over there and see. But you need to look much closer than you did at the horse you got from the Governor, that you praised so much. I trusted your word, but when this apparently excellently capable horse arrived, it was not fit for the commander’s saddle. The Governor himself did not consider it his best horse, that was only your opinion.” The commander himself used his brother’s herd, ordering: “For Miss Anna, order a team of clay-colored horses, I’m leaving the grey ones for myself.” (Lachowicze, 15 June 1620).
There were many herds which brought great fame to the families that bred them, and then spread to other estates, spreading the family name and the reputation of careful, capable breeders. Naturally, the owners of these herds became known, also, through the ability of their horses. This happened even once the owners changed, which happened often, as herds were legal inventory passed down to the widows. The Lithuanian law had set that “the mare herd and the cattle stay with the widow.” In this way, the herd of the Ostrogski princes passed to the Lubomirskis, and then onto the Sanguszkos.
The Sobieski herd in Żółkiew, which reached national fame in Poland, entered their estate from the Daniłowicz family, who in turn, inherited it from the Żółkiewski clan. The crown commander – Stanisław Żółkiewski – took the highest care, and thought ahead – he mentions it in his last will, written on the 12th of January 1606, and instructs his wife in the following way: “May the herd be held in the highest care and regard, it is a very necessary thing.” The King, Jan the 3rd himself had the most beautiful herd in Jaworów, in the Red Ruthenia region, where he liked to stay often. The Sobieski herds then passed into the estates of Tarłów, the Morskis, the Radziwiłł clan, and others. It is said that the crown’s equerry, Mr. Kicki, still had the horses of this type in Dobrzany, near Przemyśl, only 70 years ago. The most significant part of the offspring of this herd was captured by Platow, and taken east of the Dnieper. Today, in a foreign land, they don’t serve the descendants of kings or commanders, but the descendants of the Cossacks.
The small herd of the Padlewski family, which has disappeared in the recent years, was considered a branch of the Sobieski herd. The beginning of this herd came about with the twenty four mares that were gifted to Padlewski by King Jacob. It is said that the Sławuta herd – now the most famous of them all – went to the Padlewski estate for some stallions in a critical moment of its survival. Sławuta also did not forget to return the favor, and when the Padlewski herd was in a hard situation and endangered with extinction after 1830, and helped sustain the survival of the herd.
The Radziwiłł herds had great fame on Lithuanian and Russian soil. These herds were bred carefully – and until the catastrophes hit our country – and produced horses of very high blood, especially gifted in paddock riding. A part of this family’s herds passed into the House of Brandenburg through marriage and inheritances, together with sizeable other wealth in Poland. For example, Taurogi in Lithuania had this fate, through the marriage of the Radziwiłł princess to Margrave Louis of Brandenburg in the year 1681. They were also famed for a very large herd, which in 1794 belonged to the Prussian king, the great-grandson of this princess.
This herd was the fundament of the now greatest Prussian herd in Trakieny. About forty years ago, it was common to see excellent Radziwiłł horses in Vienna – brought there from Podłużne in the Volhynia (Wołyń) region. Prince Karol Stanisław Radziwiłł was known to be a degenerate reveler, a person with a wild, fantastic imagination, and this has been stretched onto the saddle horse of the prince, too. A diary of very suspicious authenticity, published in Lviv in 1864, contains this passage: “A stallion of sable-like coat, with very unusual characteristics – it was horse of the prince’s breeding – had one half in that colour, and the other half, right down the middle of the head was orange. On the breast, there were four patches of this orange colour in the shape of maple leaves, each with a pink outline, and all four legs were white up to the knee, with big orange spots. Black hoofs, and he was so beautifully composed, so alert that he would react instantly to the slightest movement of the reins – and he was so light in the jumping, that he would jump over six carts from a standstill. At the first glance, this horse confused Emperor Joseph – he thought that these patches were painted on – but he learned from the court’s equerry that they were natural. After he had a good look at the agility of this horse, he praised the horse and the rider, and when he returned from his walk, the whole court was talking about the rare horse.”
At the end of the 17th century, and in the beginning of the 18th century, a new herd formed in Podole, belonging to Earl Jerzy Dzieduszycki, the great crown equerry. It was so large that one year, when there wasn’t a good doctor with the herd, the losses amounted to 20,000 zł. The horses of this herd were so good, that one would be purchased for a 1,000 solid Thaler coins. The specific characteristics of this herd’s owner, made him similar to one of the famous horse lovers of our time. Both Puckler Muskow, and Earl Dzieduszycki have great love for herds, gardens, travelling, and a manic streak for authoring texts. In the writing of both these gentlemen, they seem to be equal, as they both seem to be children of the age that they were writing in.
When it comes to travel, the Pole has the upper hand above the German, as he did not travel as an idle loafer, and simple tourist; but instead he served his country as a respected diplomat. In the hippological terms, Dzieduszycki’s merits also have the upper hand, as an enlightened hippologist, serving and implementing the most modern ideas about horse breeding, while Puckler-Muskow could be described as attempting to preserve outdated ideas about horse breeding, based on unconditional refreshing of the herds with Arab blood, even though the English way of doing it has already been proven to have the upper hand. In gardening, neither could say anything negative about the other, both of them spend a sizeable part of their wealth in order to cultivate the gardens they loved. Puckler-Muskow’s brochure about decorative gardens is very famed, but Dzieduszycki’s brochure is also not without merit, titled ‘Observations belonging to Polish horses and herds’, which only surfaced recently, even though the author penned it almost 200 years ago.
In the last few years of the past century, the herd of Mr. Chreptowicz in Szczorsy, Lithuania, was very famed. A historical-political diary from 1783 contains this passage: “This herd is sizeable – like we said – Arab, Turkish and English stallions were imported here with great difficulty and cost, and has been supplied with Moldavian and Ukrainian mares. The pastures and the water over there are very good, so you have to expect that in a few years, this herd will produce some very fine horses. It is hard to say how committed they are to keeping a registry of this herd and knowing the origin of each horse. With the foals, they act the following way: since they are usually born in the spring, they stay with the mares and suckle them on the pastures until the autumn – after which they separate them from the dam and give them a pot of shredded barley and as much of the best hay as they want; the water is often mixed with barley flour, which aids their growth exponentially. In the second summer, they run them onto good pastures – but the next winter they give them nothing but abundant hay, barley straw and clean water to drink. For the third summer, they go to the pastures to eat feed, and in the third winter, they are fed the same way as in the second winter. After three full years, they go to the stable and are kept normally.
The Lubomirski herds in Szarogród and Pawołocz were very highly esteemed in Poland. In the Pawołocz herd, there were Neapolitan studs. These herds were sold off in those catastrophic times our country went through, they spread around the country and permeated into small herds everywhere, where their heritage will be wasted, and with it, our country’s hippological wealth. The lack of appropriate education of these herd owners, their greed and desire to extract the biggest profit possible – with minimum investment – means that no matter how excellent a horse gets into a herd like that, after a few years everything wastes away and subsequently disappears.
The Tarnowski herds in Kahorlik, Hermanówka, and Wasilówka were known to supply extremely durable horses, who only grew out in their seventh year. These herds changed hands when the Governorship of the Kahorlik region was taken away from the Tarnowskis, and seemingly a large part passed onto the Proskur family, located in Rozalówka, where their reputation was also excellent. Another part of this herd reached the Zaleski family in Pustowarna, where even a few decades ago you could find individuals reminding the old favourite horses of the Poland gone by. Not long ago, when visiting Mr. Trzeciak in Wołosówka, I saw a grey stallion thickly spotted with brown spots – he originated in the Pustowarna herd. The exterior of this horse indicated his very uncommon characteristics.
I do not know the origin of the Kurdwanowski herd, which until 1820 was in great shape – in Pieczołówka – but I know the horses of this herd very well, and until recently, the best mares that I had were the descendants of those purchased from this herd by my father, in 1816 – 15 dams and one stallion. This herd started a strong drive for development through Makary Kurdwanowski, the Busko Governor – it is mentioned in the following passage from a general, written between 1775 and 1778: “Today, I received a stallion, small, with a golden coat, it is harder to find a more beautiful horse. Under the saddle, it is quite child-like, but has some fire in him. It was very expensive. If I knew that as soon as the word about this horse reaches Kurdwanowski, he will want to buy it, I would buy two, as I don’t have another one if I sell.”
The herd of the Sanguszko princes, spread over the various estates of this clan, but mainly in Zasławie – is the same herd of the medieval times, the origin of which reaches very far back in history, having supplied knights and fighters with capable, excellent horses for centuries now. The sons of this clan always supplied the best horses for defense of the country. In the Volhynia (Wołyń) registry from 1528 of all Volhynian nobility, Jędrzej, contributed 42 horses from his estate. Wasyl, the head of the second branch of the clan, gave 38, and Jędrzej, the head of the third branch, gave 46. Together then, 126 horses were given by one family to the defense of the country. They were sourced from the herds, of which the Zasławie (or Sławuta, as it is also known) herd remains. The wealth and knowledge of this herd had a great contribution from the herd of the Ostrogski princes, which passed into the Sanguszko clan during the lifetime of Prince Paweł Franciszek (Paul Francis) Sanguszko, who married the Lubomirska princess, the daughter of the Crown Marshall Józef (Joseph) Lubomirski and Teofilia, the last princess of Zasławie. The famous Czerkasy herd once kept by the Ostrogski princes, also probably merged into the Sławuta herd. From all the herds of the Old Poland, this is the herd that has been the most preserved, most generously cultivated, and most correctly looked after. This herd has been continually refreshed by the finest sons of the desert, giving it all the characteristics of almost entirely pure Arab blood . The stables in Sławuta stood out – with their size, light, and all the comforts – receiving the matured foals from Zasławie, which comes here to prepare for sale. The finest people from all over the world try to purchase horses here. A few years ago, Sławuta sold a few saddle horses to the stable of his highness, the Emperor, Great Prince Constantine. The Sławuta stable has been often visited by the equerries of German kings, and amongst the greatest horses of the monarch that you can see in Stuttgart, you will often see descendants of Sławuta horses. The Sławuta stallions and a great portion of the mares are the finest children of Arabia – brought over from Damascus, Aleppo, and other places in the East, in expeditions undertaken with great costs and danger.
After the Sanguszko herd, the next place in our country is held by the Branicki herd in Białocerkiew (Bila Tserkva), Ukraine. For some time now, their almost purely Eastern blood has been mixed with pure English blood. This modern mode of horse breeding gives it great success, while the exhausting training in the foals’ youth gives the whole cohort uncommon resilience, strength and agility. Bila Tserkva has recently become the capital of progressive hippological practices, and change in the customs of equerries and riders alike. From Bila Tserkva, less prejudiced ideas about English horses spread to all of Ukraine.
The descendants of this Bila Tserkva herd, full of eastern characteristics, can apparently be found in Rohaczow, in Volhynia (Wołyń), at the estate of Mr. Sawicki, and they are quite popular in the country. Miraculous stories about one white horse of this herd – “Fenomen” – have been told.
The Humaniska herd of Mr. Szczęsny Potocki are described in the diaries of Mr. Chrząszczowski: “Stanisław Szczęsny Potocki has received such beautiful horses from his Ukrainian herds, that when he gifted Kaunitz a team of chestnut horses, the Austrian minister was so happy, that he paid Obodyński – the equerry that brought the horses to Veinna – a 1000 ducats.”
The herd of Grocholski in Czerwona came from a very serious herd – the herd of Colonel Poniatowski in Kulczyny – but has lost a lot value in the hands of its new owner, and a few years ago was sold off after the death of Grocholski.
The Poniatowski herds produced horses famous for their ability. Stanisław Poniatowski – the father of the King – maintained a large and beautiful herd in Jazłowiec, in the Podole region, that he purchased from the Lubomirskis. Kazimierz Poniatowski – the older brother of the King – kept herds of excellent horses in Stojanów, Potorzyca, and Sokal. Stanisław Poniatowski – the son of the king – kept a herd of very good horses that he acquired from Governor Kacper Rogaliński.
It is not possible to write about all the herds that the Polish nobility kept, or is still keeping. However, this piece cannot be concluded without mentioning the finer or more famous herds:
- The Scypion herd, inherited from the Firlej family
- The herd of Mr. Konaszewicz
- The herd of Colonel Kandyba – whose horses were massive and lacked charm – but were used for dragging extremely heavy carts.
- The herds of Mr. Rabczewski in Markowce, and of Mr. Sosnowski in Nowomalina, which bred very sizeable roan horses – sold in Warsaw for 300 ducats each in the first years of Congress of Poland.
- The Czartoryski herds in Międzyborszczyzna, and Klewań
- The herd of Wacław Rzewuski in Kuźmin and Sawrańszczyzna
- The herd of the Stecki family in Międzyrzecze
- The herd of the Abramowicz family in Bochna
- The Iwanowski herd in Kuryłów
- The Podhorski herd in Mohylna, Antonów and Bereźna
- The herd of the Jabłonowski family in Krzewiń and Ostróg
- The herd of Alojzy Czarnowski in Komarówka
- The herd of Mr. Żurowski in Iwankowce
- The herd of Niemiry clan in Krzesko
- The Rozwadowski herd in Kochanówka
- The herd of Mr. Kejdel in Giełduszyki
- The Wołłowicz herd in Świacko, Podrosienie and Wasilewicze.
- The Czapski herd in Stańków, Kiejdany and Miropol.
- The herd of Mr. Przeciszewski in Płuszcze
- The Obuchowicz herd in Lipa and Swojatycze
- The Wojniłowicz herd in Mokrany
- The Rdułtowski herd in Snów and Odachowszczyzna
- The herd of the Rostworowski family in Leśnowola and Mirowice
- The Mysłowski herd in Koropieć.
Further, the herd of the following family clans: Zbarażski, Morski, Wiszniowiecki, Chołoniewski, Borzęcki, Bal, Ossoliński, Ankwicz, Lanckoroński, Arciszewski, Sobolewski, Alexandrowicz Borzęcki, Giżycki, Kuczyński, Jezierski, Bączalski, Wereszczak, Rajecki, Chojecki, Działyński, Czarnowski, Prołewicz, and many, many more.
Bolesław Krzywousty – Bolesław III The Wry-Mouthed – the Duke of Poland between 1107 and 1138. ↑
Kazimierz Wielki – Casimir III The Great. The King of Poland from 1333 to 1370. ↑
Greater Poland (Wielkopolska) Voivodeship, is a province in west-central Poland. ↑
The Piast Dynasty – the first historical ruling dynasty of Poland. It was founded in 960, and its royal rule of Poland ended in 1370 with the death of the aforementioned king Casimir III The Great. ↑
Jadwiga of Poland – she was “King of Poland” between 1384 and 1386. She only became “Queen of Poland” when she married Władysław II Jagiełło and he became King. ↑
Kiejstut Giedyminowicz, the co-ruler of Lithuania from the year 1345, the Great Lithuanian Prince 1381-1382. ↑
Žemaitukas – a historic horse breed from Lithuania, which may be classified as a pony due to its relatively short stature. It is related to indigenous forest horse breeds and the Polish Konik breed. Currently, the total population is estimated at 400 horses. ↑
Region in North Eastern Poland, previously part of Prussia. ↑
German for „warhorse” ↑
One of the Swedish horse breeds, used in heavy work, common in Lithuania and Samogitia. ↑
Kazimierz IV Jagiellończyk – Casimir IV Jagiellon – King of Poland from 1447 until 1492. He defeated the Teutonic Knights, recovered Pomerania, and brought Prussia under Polish rule. ↑
Zygmunt August – Sigismund II Augustus – the King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania, 1548 – 1572. ↑
Original dry measure referenced is “Korzec”. There were many local forms, with the Roman Korzec containing 10.5 liters, Kraków Korzec 501 litres, and the Warsaw Korzec 120 litres. ↑
Original: „Jednochodnik” – described as “koń stępak” (palfrey horse), a horse that picks up his left front and rear leg at once, and then the right front and rear, which gave him a very light ride, and was a desired quality. ↑
Original footnote: The Dąbrowickie herd had 75 brood mares with 50 foals with them – also 43 foals of both genders, 16 four year old colts, 23 three year old colts, 17 two year old colts, 40 three year old fillies and 32 two year old fillies. The Błotnickie herd had 60 brood mares with 40 foals with them, 32 foals of both genders, 13 four year old colts, 15 three year olds, and 17 two year old cart horses, 16 making up 4 teams of 4; one orange mare, paid 50 złoty, another bay mare paid for with 150 złoty, the third, grey and piebald mare worth 50 kopeks, and the fourth, dark as a raven, worth 45 kopeks. ↑
Aksaki – Polish coat of arms of Tatar origin. ↑
Original footnote: In this registry of taken items, the following details could be quite interesting. Four teams of horses purchased for 4000 złoty, 3 Turkish saddle horses purchased for 3500 złoty, and 7 Polish horses for 2000 złoty. ↑
Jan (eng. John) III Sobieski – (1629 – 1696) was King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1674 until his death, and one of the most notable monarchs of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. ↑
Prince Karol Stanisław Radziwiłł (1734 – 1790) – Prince of the Crown Kingdom of Poland and Lithuania, the Marshall of Parliament in the year 1767 – 1768, but was one of the richest magnates with wealth that could contend with the King’s. ↑
Original: “prawie zupełnie czystej krwi arabskiej” – Literal translation: „almost entirely pure Arab blood” ↑